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Default Philippine–American War

The Philippine-American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902), [11] was an armed military conflict between the Philippines and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States. [12] [13] The war was part of a series of conflicts in the Philippine struggle for independence, preceded by the Philippine Revolution and the Spanish-American War.

The conflict began officially on June 2, 1899, when the Philippines declared war against the United States and it officially ended on July 4, 1902, after President Emilio Aguinaldo's surrender. [9] [14] However, members of the Katipunan society continued to battle the American forces. Among them was General Macario Sacay, a veteran Katipunan member who assumed the presidency of the proclaimed Tagalog Republic, formed on 1902 after the capture of President Aguinaldo. Other groups, including the Moro people and Pulahanes, continued hostilities until their defeat at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June 15, 1913. [9] [10]

Opposition to the war inspired Mark Twain to found the Anti-Imperialist League on June 15, 1898. British poet Rudyard Kipling wrote The White Man's Burden, about colonialism. The war and occupation by the United States would change the cultural landscape of the islands, as the people dealt with an estimated 34,000 - 1,000,000 casualties, disestablishment of the Catholic Church as the state religion, and the introduction of the English language as the primary language of government and some businesses. In 1916, the United States granted the Philippines autonomy and promised eventual self-government, which came in 1934. In 1946, following World War II, the Philippines would be granted independence.

Philippine-American War

The Battle of Manila, February 1899.
Date Filipino Rebellion: June 2, 1899 - July 4, 1902[a]
Moro Rebellion: 1899-1913
Location Philippines, Southeast Asia
Result United States victory and dissolution of the First Philippine Republic.
changes United States gained control of the Philippines.

First Philippine Republic
Revolutionary forces
Sultanate of Sulu
Moro United States
Philippine Constabulary
Philippine Scouts
Emilio Aguinaldo
Miguel Malvar
Manuel Tinio
Arcadio Maxilom
Macario Sakay
Dionisio Seguela
Sultan of Sulu William McKinley
Theodore Roosevelt
Elwell Otis
Arthur MacArthur
John Pershing
Jacob Smith
80,000[citation needed] ~126,000 total [1] [2]

~24,000 to ~44,000 field strength [3] [4]

Casualties and losses
~12,000-20,000 killed [1] [5] 4,196 killed, ~3,000 wounded;
2,000 Philippine Constabulary killed or wounded [6]

Phillipine civilian dead: ~34,000 to 1,000,000* [5] [7] [8]
* = approximations, see Casualties below

a July 4, 1902 is the official ending date of the war, though the Moro, the Pulahanes, the remnants of the Katipunan, and the Tagalog Republic, continued hostilities until June 15, 1913. [9] [10]

1. Background
1. 1. Philippine Revolution
Main article: Philippine Revolution

A late 19th century photograph of Filipino Katipuneros.
On July 7, 1892 Andrés Bonifacio, a warehouseman and clerk from Manila, established the Katipunan, a revolutionary organization which aimed to gain independence from Spanish colonial rule by armed revolt. [15] The Katipunan spread throughout the provinces, and the Philippine Revolution of 1896 was led by its members, called Katipuneros. [9] [16] Fighters in Cavite province won early victories. One of the most influential and popular Cavite leaders was Emilio Aguinaldo, mayor of Cavite El Viejo (modern-day Kawit), who gained control of much of eastern Cavite. Eventually Aguinaldo and his faction gained control of the leadership of the movement. In 1897, Aguinaldo was elected president of an insurgent government while the “outmaneuvered” [9] Bonifacio was executed for treason. [9] [17] Aguinaldo is officially considered the first president of the Philippines.

1. 2. Aguinaldo's exile and return

Emilio Aguinaldo in the field.
By December 1897 the struggle had come to a stalemate. In August 1897 armistice negotiations were opened between Aguinaldo and the current Spanish governor-general, Fernando Primo de Rivera. By mid-December an agreement was reached in which the governor would pay Aguinaldo a sum described in the agreement as "$800,000 (Mexican)" in three installments if Aguinaldo would go into exile. [18] [19] Aguinaldo then established himself in Hong Kong. [18] [20] Before leaving, Aguinaldo denounced the Revolution, exhorted Filipino combatants to disarm and declared those who continued hostilities to be bandits. [9] However, some Filipino revolutionaries did continue armed struggle against the Spanish colonial government. [9] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]

Aguinaldo wrote retrospectively in 1899 that he had met with U.S. Consuls E. Spencer Pratt and Rounceville Wildman in Singapore in 1898 between April 22 and 25 and that they persuaded him to again take up the mantle of leadership in the revolution, with Pratt communicating with Admiral George Dewey (the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron commander) by telegram, passing assurances from Dewey to Aguinaldo that the United States would at least recognize the independence of the Philippines under the protection of the United States Navy, and adding that there was no necessity for entering into a formal written agreement because the word of the Admiral and of the United States Consul were in fact equivalent to the most solemn pledge that their verbal promises and assurance would be fulfilled to the letter and were not to be classed with Spanish promises or Spanish ideas of a man’s word of honor. [26] Aguinaldo reports agreeing to return to the Philippines, traveling from Singapore to Hong Kong aboard the steamship Malacca, onwards from Hong Kong on American dispatch-boat McCulloch, and arriving in Cavite on May 19. [26] The New York Times wrote on August 6, 1899 that Pratt had obtained a court order enjoining the publication of certain statements "... which might be regarded as showing a positive connection" between himself and Aguinaldo. [27] The Times reports the court ruling to uphold Mr. Pratt's position that he had "no dealings of a political character" with Aguinaldo and the book publisher withdrew from publication statements to the contrary. [27]

In Camiguin, Aguinaldo reports meeting with Admiral Dewey, and recalls: "I asked whether it was true that he had sent all the telegrams to the Consul at Singapore, Mr. Pratt, which that gentleman had told me he received in regard to myself. The Admiral replied in the affirmative, adding that the United States had come to the Philippines to protect the natives and free them from the yoke of Spain. He said, moreover, that America is exceedingly well off as regards territory, revenue, and resources and therefore needs no colonies, assuring me finally that there was no occasion for me to entertain any doubts whatever about the recognition of the Independence of the Philippines by the United States." [26] By late May Dewey had been ordered by the U.S. Department of the Navy to distance himself from Aguinaldo lest he make untoward commitments to the Philippine forces. [28]

1899 political cartoon by Winsor McCay. Uncle Sam (representing the United States), gets entangled with rope around a tree labelled "Imperialism" while trying to subdue a bucking colt or mule labeled "Philippines" while a figure representing Spain walks off over the horizon carrying a bag labeled "$20,000,000".
In a matter of months after Aguinaldo's return, the Philippine Army conquered nearly all of Spanish-held ground within the Philippines. With the exception of Manila, which was completely surrounded by the Philippine Army of 12,000, the Filipinos now controlled the Philippines. Aguinaldo also turned over 15,000 Spanish prisoners to the Americans, offering them valuable intelligence. On June 12 Aguinaldo declared independence at his house in Cavite El Viejo.

On August 13, with American commanders unaware that a peace protocol had been signed between Spain and the United States on the previous day, American forces captured the city of Manila from the Spanish. [29] Governor-General Fermin Jaudenes had made a secret agreement with Dewey and General Wesley Merritt. Jaudenes specifically requested to surrender only to the Americans, not to the Filipino rebels. To save face, he proposed a mock battle with the Americans preceding the Spanish surrender; the Filipinos would not be allowed to enter the city. Dewey and Merritt agreed to this, and no one else in either camp knew about the agreement. On the eve of the mock battle, General Thomas M. Anderson telegraphed Aguinaldo, “Do not let your troops enter Manila without the permission of the American commander. On this side of the Pasig River you will be under fire”. [30]

At the beginning of the war between Spain and America, Americans and Filipinos had been allies against Spain in all but name; now Spanish and Americans were in a partnership that excluded the Filipino insurgents. Fighting between American and Filipino troops almost broke out as the former moved in to dislodge the latter from strategic positions around Manila on the eve of the attack. Aguinaldo had been told bluntly by the Americans that his army could not participate and would be fired upon if it crossed into the city. The insurgents were infuriated at being denied triumphant entry into their own capital, but Aguinaldo bided his time. Relations continued to deteriorate, however, as it became clear to Filipinos that the Americans were in the islands to stay. [28]

The June 12 declaration of Philippine independence had not been recognized by either the United States or Spain, and the Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, which was signed on December 10, 1898, in consideration for an indemnity for Spanish expenses and assets lost.

On January 1, 1899 Aguinaldo was declared President of the Philippines — the only president of what would be later called the First Philippine Republic. He later organized a Congress at Malolos, Bulacan to draft a constitution. [31]

Admiral Dewey later argued that he had promised nothing regarding the future:

"From my observation of Aguinaldo and his advisers I decided that it would be unwise to co-operate with him or his adherents in an official manner... In short, my policy was to avoid any entangling alliance with the insurgents, while I appreciated that, pending the arrival of our troops, they might be of service." [24]

2. War against the United States
2. 1. Conflict origins

Filipino soldiers outside Manila in 1899.
On June 12, 1898, Filipino revolutionary forces under the command of Aguinaldo (later to become the President of the First Philippine Republic) proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain. This declaration occurred after the United States had defeated Spain at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War.

This declaration was not recognized by the United States or Spain. Instead, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States during the December 10, 1898 Treaty of Paris, in consideration for an indemnity for Spanish expenses and assets lost. Yet, the Philippine’s was not asked by either government to pursue these actions of buying and selling the islands.

Tensions between the Philippine and the American governments existed because of the conflicting movements for independence and colonization. These tensions were aggravated by the empty promises of the United States and by feelings of betrayal on the part of Aguinaldo. The Malolos Congress under the presidency of Pedro Paterno issued a Proclamation of War on the United States on June 2, 1899. The Philippine-American war ensued between 1899 and 1902.

2. 2. First Philippine Commission
Main article: Philippine Commission

Wounded American soldiers at Santa Mesa, Manila in 1899.
On January 20, 1899 President McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission chaired by Dr. Jacob Gould Schurman to investigate conditions in the islands and make recommendations. Once again, the Filipino’s were disregarded as being fit to govern the islands and were not asked by the United States to establish such commission. Sitting on the Commission as well was Major Otis. Despite being appointed by President McKinley, Otis personally viewed the commission as an infringement upon his authority. [32] [33] [34]

In the report that they issued to the president the following year, the commissioners acknowledged Filipino aspirations for independence; they declared, however, that the Philippines was not ready for it. Specific recommendations included the establishment of civilian control over Manila (Otis would have veto power over the city’s government), creation of civilian government as rapidly as possible, especially in areas already declared “pacified” (the American chief executive in the islands at that time was the military governor), including the establishment of a bicameral legislature, autonomous governments on the provincial and municipal levels, and a system of free public elementary schools [32]

On November 2, 1900 Dr. Schurman signed the following statement:

"Should our power by any fatality be withdrawn, the commission believe that the government of the Philippines would speedily lapse into anarchy, which would excuse, if it did not necessitate, the intervention of other powers and the eventual division of the islands among them. Only through American occupation, therefore, is the idea of a free, self-governing, and united Philippine commonwealth at all conceivable. And the indispensable need from the Filipino point of view of maintaining American sovereignty over the archipelago is recognized by all intelligent Filipinos and even by those insurgents who desire an American protectorate. The latter, it is true, would take the revenues and leave us the responsibilities. Nevertheless, they recognize the indubitable fact that the Filipinos cannot stand alone. Thus the welfare of the Filipinos coincides with the dictates of national honour in forbidding our abandonment of the archipelago. We cannot from any point of view escape the responsibilities of government which our sovereignty entails; and the commission is strongly persuaded that the performance of our national duty will prove the greatest blessing to the peoples of the Philippine Islands.

2. 3. Second Philippine Commission
The Second Philippine Commission (the Taft Commission), appointed by McKinley on March 16, 1900, and headed by William Howard Taft, was granted legislative as well as limited executive powers. Between September 1900 and August 1902 it issued 499 laws. A judicial system was established, including a Supreme Court, and a legal code was drawn up to replace antiquated Spanish ordinances. A civil service was organized. The 1901 municipal code provided for popularly elected presidents, vice presidents, and councilors to serve on municipal boards. The municipal board members were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining municipal properties, and undertaking necessary construction projects; they also elected provincial governors. [33] [36]

2. 4. First shots
Main article: Battle of Manila (1899)

This print, titled "The Battle of Paceo, February 4-5, 1899, Philippine Islands", is a depiction of initial hostilities between Philippine and American forces.
The conflict began on the night of February 4, 1899 when a Filipino soldier was shot by an American soldier, Pvt. William W. Grayson (an English immigrant who acquired U.S. citizenship in 1900 [37] ). San Juan Bridge in modern San Juan City, Metro Manila was considered the site of the event until 2003, when the Philippine National Historical Institute found that it actually happened in Sociego and Silencio Streets in Santa Mesa, Manila (moving a marker). [38] Immediately before the shooting, Grayson and others witnessed a series of outpost signals. [37] Grayson's own account subsequently states:

"In a moment, something rose up slowly in front of us. It was a Filipino. I yelled 'Halt!' and made it pretty loud, for I was accustomed to challenging the officer of the guard in approved military style. I challenged him with another loud 'halt!' Then he shouted 'halto!' to me. Well, I thought the best thing to do was to shoot him. He dropped. Then two Filipinos sprang out of the gateway about fifteen feet from us. I called 'Halt' and Miller fired and dropped one. I saw that another was left. Well, I think I got my second Filipino that time. We retreated to where our six other fellows were and I said 'Line up fellows, the niggers are in here all through these yards.' We then retreated to the pipe line and got behind the water work main and stayed there all night. It was some minutes after our second shots before Filipinos began firing." [39] [40] [41]

2. 5. American escalation

Pasig — Oregon Volunteer Infantry on firing line, March 14, 1899.
Twenty-six of the 30 American generals who served in the Philippines from 1898 to 1902 had fought in the Indian Wars. [42] U.S. troop strength averaged 40,000 and peaked at 74,000. [3] Typically only 60 percent of American troops were combat troops, with a field strength ranging from 24,000 to 44,000. [3] A total of 126,468 US soldiers served there. [2] After the official end to the war, U.S. forces were regularly engaged against Filipino guerrilla forces for another decade. Also, mercenaries from Pampanga, the Macabebes, were recruited by the United States Army.

By the end of February 1899 the Americans had prevailed in the struggle for Manila, and the Philippine Army was forced to retreat north. Hard-fought American victories followed at Quingua (April), Zapote Bridge (June), and Tirad Pass (December). With the June assassination of General Antonio Luna by rivals in the Philippine leadership, conventional military leadership was weakened. Brigadier General Gregorio del Pilar fought a delaying action at Tirad Pass to allow Aguinaldo to escape, at the cost of his life. After this battle and the loss of two of their best generals, the Filipinos' ability to fight a conventional war rapidly diminished.

2. 6. American War Strategy
2. 6. 1. American Tactics
The American military strategy in the Philippines was carried out with little regard for the Filipinos. After the Filipinos began guerrilla warfare, the American military routinely began taking no prisoners and shooting surrendering soldiers. Civilians were forced into internment camps, after being suspected of being guerrilla sympathizers. Thousands of civilians died in these camps. The camps and slaughter of civilians was excused by the fact that the media told the American population that the savages were little children needing America's help and cleansing. The guerlla warfare helped this case by giving a moral right to what the American's were doing since the "savages" were cowardly uncivilized enemies. An offer of peace from Emilio Aguinaldo was completely rejected by American command.

Support for American actions in the Philippines was justified by those in the U.S. government and media who supported the conflict through the use of moralistic oration. Stuart Creighton Miller writes “Americans altruistically went to war with Spain to liberate the Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and Filipinos from their tyrannical yoke. If they lingered on too long in the Philippines, it was to protect the Filipinos from European predators waiting in the wings for an American withdrawal and to tutor them in American-style democracy. [43] ”

2. 6. 2. General Otis's Actions
General Elwell Otis gained a significant amount of notoriety for his actions in the Philippines. Although multiple orders were given to Otis from Washington to avoid military conflict, he did very little to circumvent the breakout of war. Notably under his command, he turned down a proposal from Emilio Aguinaldo to end the fighting, stating “fighting, having begun, must go on to the grim end.” Otis refused to accept anything but unconditional surrender from the Philippine Army. His often made major military decisions on his own, without first consulting leadership in Washington at all. He acted aggressively in dealing with the Filipinos under the impression that their resistance would collapse quickly; even after this proved false, he continued to insist that the insurgency had been defeated, and that the remaining casualties were caused by “isolated bands of outlaws”. [44] .

Otis also played a large role in suppressing information about American military tactics from the media. When letters describing American atrocities reached the American media, the War Department became involved and demanded that General Otis investigate their authenticity. Each press clipping was forwarded to the original writer’s commanding officer, who would then convince or force the soldier to write a retraction of the original statements. [45]

Meanwhile, Otis claimed that Filipino insurgents tortured American prisoners in “fiendish fashion”. [46] During the closing months of 1899 Emilio Aguinaldo attempted to counter General Otis’s account by suggesting that neutral parties — foreign journalists or representatives of the International Red Cross — inspect his military operations. Otis refused, but Emilio Aguinaldo managed to smuggle four reporters — two English, one Canadian, and one Japanese — into the Philippines. The correspondents returned to Manila to report that American captives were “treated more like guests than prisoners,” were “fed the best that the country affords, and everything is done to gain their favor.” The story went on to say that American prisoners were offered commissions in the Filipino army and that three had accepted. The four reporters were expelled from the Philippines as soon as their stories were printed. [47]

Naval Lieutenant J.C. Gilmore, whose release was forced by American cavalry pursuing Aguinaldo into the mountains, insisted that he had received “considerable treatment” and that he was no more starved than were his captors. Otis responded to these two articles by ordering the “capture” of the two authors, and that they be “investigated”, therefore questioning their loyalty. [48]

When F.A. Blake of the International Red Cross arrived at Emilio Aguinaldo’s request, Otis kept him confined to Manila, where Otis’s staff explained all of the Filipinos' violations of civilized warfare. Blake managed to slip away from an escort and venture into the field. Blake never made it past American lines, but even within American lines he saw burned out villages and “horribly mutilated bodies, with stomachs slit open and occasionally decapitated.” Blake waited to return to San Francisco, where he told one reporter that “American soldiers are determined to kill every Filipino in sight.” [49]

2. 7. American Soldiers' Letters and Responses
2. 8. Philippine war strategy

Manila — Filipino attack on the barracks of Co. C, 13th Minnesota Volunteers, during the Tondo Fire.
Estimates of the Filipino forces vary between 80,000 and 100,000, with tens of thousands of auxiliaries. [3] Lack of weapons and ammunition was a significant impediment to the Filipinos.

The goal, or end-state, sought by the First Philippine Republic was a sovereign, independent, socially stable Philippines led by the ilustrado (intellectual) oligarchy. [50] Local chieftains, landowners, and businessmen were the principales who controlled local politics. The war was strongest when illustrados, principales, and peasants were unified in opposition to annexation. [50] The peasants, who provided the bulk of guerrilla manpower, had interests different from their illustrado leaders and the principales of their villages. [50] Coupled with the ethnic and geographic fragmentation, unity was a daunting task. The challenge for Aguinaldo and his generals was to sustain unified Filipino public opposition; this was the revolutionaries' strategic center of gravity. [50]

The Filipino operational center of gravity was the ability to sustain its force of 100,000 irregulars in the field. [51] The Filipino general Francisco Makabulos described the Filipinos' war aim as, “not to vanquish the U.S. Army but to inflict on them constant losses.” They sought to initially use conventional tactics and an increasing toll of U.S. casualties to contribute to McKinley's defeat in the 1900 presidential election. [51] Their hope was that as President the avowedly anti-imperialist William Jennings Bryan would withdraw from the Philippines. [51] They pursued this short-term goal with guerrilla tactics better suited to a protracted struggle. [51] While targeting McKinley motivated the revolutionaries in the short term, his victory demoralized them and convinced many undecided Filipinos that the United States would not depart precipitately. [51]

2. 9. Guerrilla war phase
In 1900 Aguinaldo shifted from conventional to guerrilla warfare, a means of operation which better suited their disadvantaged situation and made American occupation of the Philippine archipelago all the more difficult over the next few years. In fact, during just the first four months of the guerrilla war, the Americans had nearly 500 casualties. [52] The Philippine Army began staging bloody ambushes and raids, such as the guerrilla victories at Paye, Catubig, Makahambus, Pulang Lupa, Balangiga and Mabitac. At first, it even seemed as if the Filipinos would fight the Americans to a stalemate and force them to withdraw. This was even considered by President McKinley at the beginning of the phase.

The shift to guerrilla warfare, however, only angered the Americans into acting more ruthlessly than before. They began taking no prisoners, burning whole villages, and routinely shooting surrendering Filipino soldiers. Civilians were forced into concentration camps, after being suspected of being guerrilla sympathizers. Thousands of civilians died in these camps. The camps and slaughter of civilians was excused by the fact that the media told the American population that the savages were little children needing America's help and cleansing. The guerilla warfare helped this case by giving a moral right to what the American's were doing since the "savages" were cowardly uncivilized enemies. [53]

The subsequent American oppression of the population tremendously reduced the materials, men, and morale of many Filipino soldiers, compelling them in one way or another to surrender. The start of guerrilla warfare fuelled pro war journalists with more material to spin. The journalists basically criticized the Filipinos for their style of waging war. [54]

2. 10. Decline and fall of the First Philippine Republic

A group of Filipino combatants are photographed just as they lay down their weapons prior to their surrender.
The Philippine Army continued suffering defeats from the better armed American Army during the conventional warfare phase, forcing Aguinaldo to continuously change his base of operations, which he did for nearly the length of the entire war.

On March 23, 1901 General Frederick Funston and his troops captured Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela, with the help of some Filipinos (called the Macabebe Scouts after their home locale) who had joined the Americans' side. The Americans pretended to be captives of the Macabebes, who were dressed in Philippine Army uniforms. Once Funston and his “captors” entered Aguinaldo's camp, they immediately fell upon the guards and quickly overwhelmed them and the weary Aguinaldo.

On April 1, 1901, at the Malacañang Palace in Manila, Aguinaldo swore an oath accepting the authority of the United States over the Philippines and pledging his allegiance to the American government. On April 19, he issued a Proclamation of Formal Surrender to the United States, telling his followers to lay down their weapons and give up the fight. “Let the stream of blood cease to flow; let there be an end to tears and desolation,” Aguinaldo said. “The lesson which the war holds out and the significance of which I realized only recently, leads me to the firm conviction that the complete termination of hostilities and a lasting peace are not only desirable but also absolutely essential for the well-being of the Philippines.” [55] [56]

The capture of Aguinaldo dealt a severe blow to the Filipino cause, but not as much as the Americans had hoped. General Miguel Malvar took over the leadership of the Filipino government, or what remained of it. [57] He originally had taken a defensive stance against the Americans, but now launched all-out offensive against the American-held towns in the Batangas region. [10] General Vincente Lukban in Samar, and other army officers, continued the war in their respective areas. [10]

In response General J. Franklin Bell adopted tactics to counter Malvar's guerrilla strategy. Forcing civilians to live in hamlets, interrogating suspected guerrillas (and regular civilians alike), and his scorched earth campaigns took a heavy toll on the Filipino revolutionaries. [58]

Bell also relentlessly pursued Malvar and his men, breaking ranks, dropping morale, and forcing the surrender of many of the Filipino soldiers. Finally, Malvar surrendered, along with his sick wife and children and some of his officers, on April 13, 1902. By the end of the month nearly 3,000 of Malvar's men had also surrendered. With the surrender of Malvar, the Filipino war effort began to dwindle even further.

2. 11. Official end to the war
The Philippine Organic Act of July 1902 approved, ratified, and confirmed McKinley's Executive Order establishing the Philippine Commission and stipulated that a legislature would be established composed of a lower house, the Philippine Assembly, which would be popularly elected, and an upper house consisting of the Philippine Commission. The act also provided for extending the United States Bill of Rights to Filipinos. [33] [36]

On July 2 the Secretary of War telegraphed that the insurrection against the sovereign authority of the U.S. having come to an end, and provincial civil governments having been established, the office of Military governor was terminated. On July 4 Theodore Roosevelt, who had succeeded to the U.S. Presidency after the assassination of President McKinley on September 5, 1901, proclaimed a full and complete pardon and amnesty to all people in the Philippine archipelago who had participated in the conflict. [59] [60]

2. 12. Irreconcilables
The war unofficially continued for nearly a decade as Constantino has suggested, since groups collectively know as Irreconcilables remained active. These included remnants of the Katipunan, and other resistance groups continued to their struggle by fighting the United States Military or Philippine Constabulary. [9] After the close of the war, however, Governor-General Taft preferred to rely on the Philippine Constabulary in a law-enforcement role rather than on the American army. He was, in fact, criticized for this. [61]

Simeon Ola of Guinobatan, Albay in the Bicol region has been suggested as the last Filipino general to surrender (on September 25, 1903) in place of Malvar. [62]

In 1902 Macario Sakay a veteran Katipunan member formed another Tagalog Republic, called Katagalugan after Bonifacio's, in southern Luzon. The republic ended in 1906 when Sakay and his leading followers were arrested and the following year executed by the American authorities as bandits, after they had accepted an amnesty offer. [9] [63]

2. 13. Pulajanes
Quasi-religious armed groups included the pulajanes (so called because of their red garments), colorum (from a corruption of the Latin in saecula saeculorum, part of the Glory Be to the Father prayer), and Dios-Dios (literally "God-God") groups of assorted provinces. These groups were mostly composed of farmers and other poor people led by messianic leaders, and they subscribed to a blend of Roman Catholicism and folk beliefs. For example, they used amulets (called agimat or anting-anting), believing they would become bulletproof. One of these leaders was Dionisio Seguela, better known as Papa Isio (Pope Isio). The last of these groups were wiped out or had surrendered by 1913. [9]

These resistance movements were all dismissed by the American government as banditry, fanaticism or cattle rustling. [9]

2. 14. Moro Rebellion
The American government had a peace treaty with the Sultanate of Sulu at the outbreak of the war with Aguinaldo that was supposed to prevent war in Moro territory. However, after the resistance in the north was crippled, the United States began to colonize Moro land that provoked the Moro Rebellion. Beginning with the Taraca, which occurred on April 4, 1904, American forces battled Datu Ampuanagus, who surrendered after losing 200 members of his people. [9] [64] Numerous battles would occur after that up until the end of the conflict on June 15, 1913. During the conflict, the battles of Bud Dajo and Bud Bagsak were among the most notable since casualties included women and children [10]

3. Political atmosphere
3. 1. American opposition
Some Americans, notably William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Ernest Crosby, and other members of the American Anti-Imperialist League, strongly objected to the annexation of the Philippines. Other Americans mistakenly thought that the Philippines wanted to become part of the United States.[citation needed] Anti-imperialist movements claimed that the United States had become a colonial power, by replacing Spain as the colonial power in the Philippines. Other anti-imperialists opposed annexation on racist grounds. Among these was Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina, who feared that annexation of the Philippines would lead to an influx of non-white immigrants into the United States. As news of atrocities committed in subduing the Philippines arrived in the United States, support for the war flagged.

Mark Twain famously opposed the war by using his influence in the press. He said the war betrayed the ideals of American democracy by not allowing the Filipino people to choose their own destiny.

“There is the case of the Philippines. I have tried hard, and yet I cannot for the life of me comprehend how we got into that mess. Perhaps we could not have avoided it — perhaps it was inevitable that we should come to be fighting the natives of those islands — but I cannot understand it, and have never been able to get at the bottom of the origin of our antagonism to the natives. I thought we should act as their protector — not try to get them under our heel. We were to relieve them from Spanish tyranny to enable them to set up a government of their own, and we were to stand by and see that it got a fair trial. It was not to be a government according to our ideas, but a government that represented the feeling of the majority of the Filipinos, a government according to Filipino ideas. That would have been a worthy mission for the United States. But now — why, we have got into a mess, a quagmire from which each fresh step renders the difficulty of extrication immensely greater. I'm sure I wish I could see what we were getting out of it, and all it means to us as a nation.” [65]

Some later historians, such as Howard Zinn and Daniel Boone Schirmer, cite the Philippine-American War as an example of American imperialism. [66]

3. 2. Filipino collaboration
Some of Aguinaldo's associates supported America, even before hostilities began. Pedro Paterno, Aguinaldo's prime minister and the author of the 1897 armistice treaty with Spain, advocated the incorporation of the Philippines into the United States in 1898. Other associates sympathetic to the U.S. were Trinidad Pardo de Tavera and Benito Legarda, prominent members of Congress; Gregorio Araneta, Aguinaldo's Secretary of Justice; and Felipe Buencamino, Aguinaldo's Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Buencamino is recorded to have said in 1902: "I am an American and all the money in the Philippines, the air, the light, and the sun I consider American." Many such people subsequently held posts in the colonial government, [9] thus creating a new class in Philippine society, the old political clans - such as the Cojuangcos, Marcoses, Lopezes, and Aquinos, to name a few.

U.S. Army Captain Matthew Arlington Batson formed the Macabebe Scouts [67] as a native guerrilla force to fight the insurgency.

4. Casualties

Some Filipinos wounded by the fighting in 1899.
In the official war years (1899-1902), iCasualties, an American organization, reports there were 4,169 American soldier deaths and 2,930 wounded. In contrast, iCasualties reports the Philippine Constabulary suffered 2,000 deaths. It is important the exact number of Philippines to have perished throughout the conflict is highly debated and controversial. It has been reported that as many as 34,000 Filipino soldiers lost their lives and as many as 250,000 - 1,000,000 perished as a result of the conflict. Reports tend to attribute the disproportionately high number of Philippine deaths to a superior technology employed by the U.S. cholera epidemic that broke out at the conflict’s end.

Filipino soldiers killed during the Battle of Manila. Original caption is "Insurgent dead just as they fell in the trench near Santa Ana, February 5. The trench was circular, and the picture shows but a small portion."
As previously mentioned combat casualties were extremely one-sided, as a disproportionate amount of Filipino soldiers died in comparison to their American counterparts. This notion of disproportionately is illustrated in the summer of 1902 when a local U.S. commander ordered the mass execution of Filipino’s in the Samar province - as Prof. MacIssac of Jacksonville University claims. Although American forces were better equipped to fight a war, they were not heavily trained in jungle warfare. As portrayed through the poorly trained U.S. state militias who were the primary ground forces during the Central Luzon campaign (1899-1901).

American Colonel John M. Stotsenburg was killed during the Battle of Quingua
With no way of knowing the exact number of casualties resulting from the cholera epidemic, it is important to discuss the superior technology of the United States. Throughout the conflict the American soldiers were equipped with Krag-Jorgensen bolt-action rifles, the cutting edge rifle of the time. Moreover, U.S. warships stood ready to destroy Philippine positions. In contrast, the Filipinos were armed with Mausers and Remingtons, many of which had been left or taken from the Spanish. The Philippine artillery was much of the same, consisting mostly of worn-out artillery pieces captured from the Spanish. Ammunition and rifles became scarce as the war dragged on, and Filipinos were forced to manufacture their own, like the homemade paltik. Still most did not even have firearms. Many used bolos, spears, and lances in fighting, which also contributed to high casualty figures when such obsolete weapons were used against the Americans' superior arms.

A discussion merely on the cholera outbreak and technology does not provide a sufficient understanding of the true nature of the conflict. The data presented above incorporate only those deaths that occurred while serving, they neglect to incorporate the massacres and indiscriminate killings both sides engaged in. United States attacks into the countryside often included scorched earth campaigns where entire villages were burned and destroyed, torture (and the concentration of civilians into "protected zones.” General Otis was known to have also issued an order to “kill anyone over ten.” Such orders undoubtedly played a role in the disproportionate number of Filipinos to have died.

4. 1. Ratio of Filipinos wounded
The most conclusive evidence that the enemy wounded were being killed, came from the official reports of Otis and his successor, General Arthur MacArthur, Jr., which claimed fifteen Filipinos killed for every one wounded. In the American Civil War, the ratio had been five wounded for every soldier killed, which is close to historical norm. Otis attempted to explain this anomaly by the superior marksmanship of rural southerners and westerners in the U.S. military, who had hunted all their lives. [68]

5. Atrocities
5. 1. American atrocities

General Jacob H. Smith's infamous order "KILL EVERY ONE OVER TEN" was the caption in the New York Journal cartoon on May 5, 1902. The Old Glory draped an American shield on which a vulture replaced the bald eagle. The bottom caption exclaimed, "Criminals Because They Were Born Ten Years Before We Took the Philippines". Published in the New York Journal-American, May 5, 1902.
In 1908 Manuel Arellano Remondo, in General Geography of the Philippine Islands, wrote: “The population decreased due to the wars, in the five-year period from 1895 to 1900, since, at the start of the first insurrection, the population was estimated at 9,000,000, and at present (1908), the inhabitants of the Archipelago do not exceed 8,000,000 in number.” [69]

United States attacks into the countryside often included scorched earth campaigns [58] where entire villages were burned and destroyed, torture (water cure [70] ) and the concentration of civilians into "protected zones" [71] . In November 1901, the Manila correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger reported:"The present war is no bloodless, opera bouffe engagement; our men have been relentless, have killed to exterminate men, women, children, prisoners and captives, active insurgents and suspected people from lads of ten up, the idea prevailing that the Filipino as such was little better than a dog...." [72]

In an article, We Charge Genocide: A Brief History of US in the Philippines, appearing in the December, 2005 issue of Political Affairs (the official magazine of the Communist Party USA), E. San Juan, Jr., director of the Philippines Cultural Studies Center, Connecticut, argued that during the Philippine-American War (1899-1902) and pacification campaign (1902-1913), the operations launched by the U.S. against the Filipinos, an integral part of its pacification program, which they quoted as claiming the lives 1.4 million Filipinos, constituted genocide. [73]

5. 1. 1. American soldiers' letters and Response
Throughout the entire war American soldiers would write home about the horrors and atrocities which the United States committed in the Philippines. In these letters they would criticize General Otis and the U.S. military; so when these letters reached anti-imperialist editors they became national news and forced the War Department to look into their truthfulness. Two of the letters went as follows: 1) A New York born soldier - “The town of Titatia [ sic] was surrounded to us a few days ago, and two companies occupy the same. Last night one of our boys was found shot and his stomach cut open. Immediately orders were received from General Wheaton to burn the town and kill every native in sight; which was done to a finish. About 1,000 men, women and children were reported killed. I am probably growing hard-hearted, for I am in my glory when I can sight my gun on some dark skin and pull the trigger (Benevolent Assimilation, pg. 88).” [74] 2) Corporal Sam Gillis - “We make everyone get into his house by seven p.m., and we only tell a man once. If he refuses we shoot him. We killed over 300 natives the first night. They tried to set the town on fire. If they fire a shot from the house we burn the house down and every house near it, and shoot the natives, so they are pretty quiet in town now.” [74]

However, General Otis’s investigation of the content of these letters consisted of sending a copy of them to the author’s superior and having him force the soldier/author to write a retraction. Then, when a soldier refused to do so, such as Private Charles Brenner of the Kansas regiment did, he was, remarkably, court-martialed. In the case of Private Brenner is was on the charge “for writing and conniving at the publication of an article which . . . contains willful [ sic ] falsehoods concerning himself and a false charge against Captain Bishop.” [45] This is not to say that all American soldiers’ letters home explained the atrocities committed by the U.S. such as to bring about the American Public’s and General Otis’s displeasure. There were still many which portrayed U.S. actions as a result of Filipino “insurgent” provocation and thus entirely justified. One such letter home was written by Private Hermann Dittner and was titled “the trouble with the nigs.” It went as follows; - “It then became apparent that a fight was imminent. So on February 3 we posted our sentry at the same old place. The insurgents kicked but without avail. Our colonel was down there and an insurgent called him a s - n - -b - h. Of course this made Stotsenburg ad and he gave orders to arrest the lieutenant as soon as they could catch him.” [75]

5. 1. 2. Internment camps
Filipino villagers were forced into internment camps called reconcentrados which were surrounded by free-fire zone, or in other words “dead zones.” Furthermore, these camps were overcrowded and filled with disease, causing the death rate to be extremely high. Needless to say the conditions of these “reconcentrados” were awful. Between January and April of 1902 8,350 prisoners died out of approximately 298,000 in total. Some camps incurred death rates as high as 20 percent. "One camp was two miles by one mile (3.2 by 1.6 km) in area and "home" to some 8,000 Filipinos. Men were rounded up for questioning, tortured and summarily executed." [76]

In Batangas Province, where General Franklin Bell was responsible for setting up a internment camp, a correspondent described the operation as “relentless.” General Bell ordered that by December 25, 1901 the entire population of both Batangas Province and Laguna Province had to gather into small areas within the “pablacion” of their respective towns. Barrio families had to bring everything that they could carry because anything left behind - including houses, gardens, carts, poultry and animals - were burned by the U.S. Army. Anyone found outside the internment camps were shot. General Bell insisted that he built these camps to "protect friendly natives from the insurgents, assure them an adequate food supply" while teaching them "proper sanitary standards." The commandant of one of the camps referred to them as the "suburbs of Hell." [76]

American soldiers killed “men, women, children, prisoners and captives, active insurgents and suspected people, from lads of 10 and up, an idea prevailing that the Filipino ... was little better than a dog” who belonged on "the rubbish heap." [77]

This use of internment camps by the United States in order to control the Filipinos movement and possible Guerillas is representative of the view the U.S. military and especially General Otis took toward the natives. The American officers were distrustful of any and all Filipinos that they saw due to the Guerilla aspect of the war. In fact, even though some Macabebe Filipinos were recruited into the U.S. military as a special scout unit, and served bravely, General Otis mistrusted them. This widespread mistrust of any Filipino, thinking of them all as a potential enemy, played a large part in the formation of the internment camps.[citation needed]

5. 2. Filipino atrocities
U.S. Army General Otis stated that Filipino insurgents tortured American prisoners in “fiendish fashion”. According to Otis, many were buried alive, or were placed up to their necks in anthills. Others had their genitals removed and stuffed into their mouths, and were then executed by suffocation or bleeding to death. It was also stated that some prisoners were deliberately infected with leprosy before being released to spread the disease among their comrades. Spanish priests were horribly mutilated before their congregations, and natives who refused to support Emilio Aguinaldo were slaughtered by the thousands. American newspaper headlines announced the “Murder and Rapine” by the “Fiendish Filipinos.” [46] General “Fighting Joe” Wheeler insisted that it was the Filipinos who had mutilated their own dead, murdered women and children, and burned down villages, solely to discredit American soldiers. [46]

Other events dubbed atrocities included those attributed by the Americans to General Vicente Lukban, allegedly the Filipino commander who masterminded the Balangiga massacre in Samar province, a surprise Filipino attack that killed almost fifty American soldiers. Media reports stated that many of the bodies were mutilated. [78] The attack itself triggered American reprisals in Samar, ordered by General Jacob Hurd Smith, who reportedly ordered his men to kill everyone over ten years old. To his credit, Major Littleton Waller countermanded it to his own men. Nevertheless, some of his men "undoubtedly" carried out atrocities. [79] Smith was court-martialed for this order and found guilty in 1902, which ended his career in the U.S. army. [80] Waller was found guilty of killing eleven Filipino guides. [80]

Sergeant Hallock testified in the Lodge Committee that natives were given the water cure, “ order to secure information of the murder of Private O'Herne of Company I, who had been not only killed, but roasted and otherwise tortured before death ensued.” [81]

On the Filipino side, information regarding atrocities comes from the eyewitnesses and the participants themselves. In his History of the Filipino People Teodoro Agoncillo writes that the Filipino troops could match and even exceed American brutality on some prisoners of war. Kicking, slapping, and spitting at faces were common. In some cases, ears and noses were cut off and salt applied to the wounds. In other cases, captives were buried alive. These atrocities occurred regardless of Aguinaldo's orders and circulars concerning the good treatment of prisoners. [82]

Worcester recounts two specific Filipino atrocities as follows:

"A detachment, marching through Leyte, found an American who had disappeared a short time before crucified, head down. His abdominal wall had been carefully opened so that his intestines might hang down in his face.
Another American prisoner, found on the same trip, had been buried in the ground with only his head projecting. His mouth had been propped open with a stick, a trail of sugar laid to it through the forest, and a handful thrown into it.

Millions of ants had done the rest." [83]

6. Consequences
6. 1. Cultural impact
The Roman Catholic Church was disestablished and a considerable amount of church land was purchased and redistributed. The land amounted to 170,917 hectares (422,350 acres), for which the Church asked $12,086,438.11 in March 1903. [84] The purchase was completed on 22 December 1903 at a sale price of $7,239,784.66. [85] The land redistribution program was stipulated in at least three laws: the Philippine Organic Act [86] , the Public Lands Act [87] and the Friar Lands Act [88] . [89] Section 10 of the Public Land Act limited purchases to a maximum of 16 hectares for an individual or 1024 hectares for a corporation or like association. [87] [90] Land was also offered for lease to landless farmers, at prices ranging from fifty centavos to one peso and fifty centavos per hectare per annum. [87] [90] Section 28 of the Public Lands Act stipulated that lease contracts may run for a maximum period of 25 years, renewable for another 25 years. [87] [90]

U.S. President McKinley, in his instructions to the First Philippine Commission in 1898, ordered the use of the Philippine languages as well as English for instructional purposes. The American administrators, finding the local languages to be too numerous and too difficult to learn and to write teaching materials in, ended up with a monolingual system in English with no attention paid to the other Philippine languages except for the token statement concerning the necessity of using them eventually for the system. [91]

In 1901 at least five hundred teachers (365 males and 165 females) arrived from the U.S. aboard the USS Thomas. The name Thomasite was adopted for these teachers, who firmly established education as one of America's major contributions to the Philippines. Among the assignments given were Albay, Catanduanes, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, and Masbate. Twenty-seven of the original Thomasites either died of tropical diseases or were murdered by Filipino rebels during their first 20 months of residence. Despite the hardships, the Thomasites persisted, teaching and building learning institutions that prepared students for their chosen professions or trades. They opened the Philippine Normal School and the Philippine School of Arts and Trades (PSAT) in 1901, and reopened the Philippine Nautical School, established in 1839 by the Board of Commerce of Manila under Spain. By the end of 1904, primary courses were mostly taught by Filipinos under American supervision. [92]

6. 2. Philippine independence
On January 20, 1899, President McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission (the Schurman Commission), a five-person group headed by Dr. Jacob Schurman, president of Cornell University, to investigate conditions in the islands and make recommendations. In the report that they issued to the president the following year, the commissioners acknowledged Filipino aspirations for independence; they declared, however, that the Philippines was not ready for it. Specific recommendations included the establishment of civilian government as rapidly as possible (the American chief executive in the islands at that time was the military governor), including establishment of a bicameral legislature, autonomous governments on the provincial and municipal levels, and a new system of free public elementary schools. [93]

The Second Philippine Commission (the Taft Commission), appointed by McKinley on March 16, 1900, and headed by William Howard Taft, was granted legislative as well as limited executive powers. Between September 1900 and August 1902, it issued 499 laws. A judicial system was established, including a Supreme Court, and a legal code was drawn up to replace Spanish ordinances. A civil service was organized. The 1901 municipal code provided for popularly elected presidents, vice presidents, and councilors to serve on municipal boards. The municipal board members were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining municipal properties, and undertaking necessary construction projects; they also elected provincial governors. In July 1901 the Philippine Constabulary was organized as an archipelago-wide police force to control brigandage and deal with the remnants of the insurgent movement. After military rule was terminated on July 4, 1901, the Philippine Constabulary gradually took over from United States army units the responsibility for suppressing guerrilla and bandit activities. [93]

From the very beginning, United States presidents and their representatives in the islands defined their colonial mission as tutelage: preparing the Philippines for eventual independence. Except for a small group of "retentionists," the issue was not whether the Philippines would be granted self-rule, but when and under what conditions. Thus political development in the islands was rapid and particularly impressive in light of the complete lack of representative institutions under the Spanish. The Philippine Organic Act of July 1902 stipulated that, with the achievement of peace, a legislature would be established composed of a lower house, the Philippine Assembly, which would be popularly elected, and an upper house consisting of the Philippine Commission, which was to be appointed by the president of the United States. [93]

The Jones Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1916 to serve as the new organic law in the Philippines, promised eventual independence and instituted an elected Philippine senate. The Tydings-McDuffie Act (officially the Philippine Independence Act; Public Law 73-127) approved on March 24, 1934 provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence (from the United States) after a period of ten years. World War II intervened, bringing the Japanese occupation between 1941 and 1945. In 1946, the Treaty of Manila (1946) between the governments of the U.S. and the Republic of the Philippines provided for the recognition of the independence of the Republic of the Philippines and the relinquishment of American sovereignty over the Philippine Islands.

7. See also
•Battles of the Philippine-American War
•Benevolent assimilation
•Filipino American
•History of the Philippines
•List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Philippine-American War
•Lodge Committee
•Moro Rebellion
•Battle of Cagayan de Misamis, now the City of Cagayan de Oro
•Philippine Constabulary
•Philippine Scouts
•Timeline of Philippine-American War
•The White Man's Burden, written in regard to the U.S. conquest of the Philippines and other former Spanish colonies
8. Notes

1.^ "Historian Paul Kramer revisits the Philippine-American War", The JHU Gazette (Johns Hopkins University) 35 (29), April 10, 2006,, retrieved 2008-03-18
2.^ Deady 2005, p. 62
3.^ Deady 2005, p. 55
4.Ramsey 2007, p. 115
5.^ Guillermo, Emil (February 8, 2004). "A first taste of empire". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: 03J.,6070988.
6.Chambers & Anderson 1999
7.Smallman-Raynor 1998
8.Burdeos 2008, p. 14.
9.^ Constantino 1975
10.^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 247-297
11.Wolters, W.G. (2004), "Philippine War of Independence", in Keat Gin Ooi, Southeast Asia: A historical encyclopedia from Angkor Wat to East Timor, II, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1576077705,
12.Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain; December 10, 1898, Yale University,
13.Carman Fitz Randolph (2009), "Chapter I, The Annexation of the Philippines", The Law and Policy of Annexation, BiblioBazaar, LLC, ISBN 9781103324811,
14.Delmendo 2004, p. 47.
15.Agoncillo 1990, p. 149
16.Agoncillo 1990, pp. 149-166
17.Agoncillo 1990, pp. 180-181
18.^ Aguinaldo 1899 Ch.2
19.The Mexican dollar at the time was worth about 50 U.S. cents, according to Halstead 1898, p. 126
20.Agoncillo 1990, p. 187
21.Miller 1982, p. 34
22.Ocampo, Ambeth R. (January 7 2005). "The First Filipino Novel". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
23."Chronology of Significant Events Relating to the Career of Emilio Aguinaldo with Respect to the Various Imperialist and Anti-Imperialist Campaigns in the Philippines". Retrieved 2006-05-20. (from internet archive)
24.^ Brands 1992, p. 46
25.Steinberg 1972, p. 167, Citing Kalaw 1926, pp. 92-98.
(Miller states that the amount was $800,000. Miller 1982, p. 35)
26.^ Aguinaldo 1899
27.^ (PDF) Spencer-Pratt and Aguinaldo, The New York Times, August 26, 1899,, retrieved 2007-12-26
28.^ Seekins, Donald M. (1991), "Historical Setting—Outbreak of War, 1898", in Dolan, Ronald E., Philippines: A Country Study, Washington: Library of Congress,, retrieved 2007-12-25
29.The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War, U.S. Library of Congress,, retrieved 2007-10-10
30.Agoncillo 1990, p. 196
31.Agoncillo 1990, pp. 199-212
32.^ Miller 1982, p. 132
33.^ "Philippines: United States Rule". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-07-04.
34.Worcester 1914, p. 180 Ch.9
35.Worcester 1914, p. 309, citing Report Philippine Commission, Vol. I, p. 183.
36.^ "The Philippine Bill of July 1902". online digital library. July 1, 1902. Retrieved 2008-01-07.[dead link]
37.^ Ocampo, Ambeth (March 7, 2008), The first shot, Philippine Daily Inquirer,
38.Carvajal, Nancy C. "RP-US war actually began in Manila, not San Juan." Philippine Daily Inquirer. 02/04/2008.
39.Ambeth R. Ocampo (6 November 2008), The first shot, Philippine Daily Inquirer,
40.Wildman 1901
41."I. The Philippine American War", Philippine Centennial Celebration collection,, citing Bautista 1998, p. 63,
42.Boot 2003, p. 127
43.Miller 1982, p. [page needed].
44.Miller 1982, pp. 633-66.
45.^ Miller 1982, p. 89.
46.^ Miller 1982, pp. 92-93
47.Miller 1982, p. 93 ^ Public Opinion volume 27 (1899), p. 291;
^ San Francisco Call February 14, 21, 23, March 30, 31, May 29, June 9, July 17, 1899.
48.Miller 1982, p. 93;
^ Literary Digest Volume 18 (1899), p. 499
49.Miller 1982, p. 94;
^ Boston Globe June 27, 1900;
^ Literary Digest Volume 20 (1900), p. 25;
^ San Francisco Call December 8, 1899, February 16, 1900
50.^ Deady 2005, p. 57
51.^ Deady 2005, p. 58
52.Sexton 2008, p. 237
53.Philip A.(2004)COLONIALISM IN DENIAL: US PROPAGANDA IN THE PHILIPPINE— AMERICAN WAR. Social Alternatives Vol. 23 No.3, Third Quarter, 2004
54.Paul A.K (2006)Race-Making and Colonial Violence in the U.S. Empire: The Philippine- American War as Race War. Diplomatic History, Vol. 30, No. 2 (April 2006);
^ Paul Alexander Kramer (2006), "The Philippine-American Ware as Race War", [9780807856536 The blood of government: race, empire, the United States, & the Philippines], UNC Press, pp. 130-147,
55.Aguinaldo's Proclamation of Formal Surrender to the United States, - Philippine Culture, April 19, 1901,, retrieved December 5, 2009.
56.Brands 1992, p. 59
57.Cruz, Maricel V. "Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar." Manila Times, January 2, 2008
58.^ Schirmer & Shalom 1987, p. 18
59.Worcester 1914, p. 180
60.(PDF) GENERAL AMNESTY FOR THE FILIPINOS; Proclamation Issued by the President, July 4, 1902,, retrieved 2008-02-05
61.Worcester 1914, p. 240 Ch.14
62.Dy-Liacco, Leonor R. (1996). Sarung Dolot sa Satuyang Ina. J & R Printing Co. Inc.
63.Froles, Paul, Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?, Philippine History Group of Los Angeles,
64."Mindinao, Sulu, and ARMM". Retrieved 2008-04-27.
65.Twain, Mark (October 6, 1900). "Mark Twain, The Greatest American Humorist, Returning Home". New York World. (from internet archive)
66.Zinn 1999; Schirmer 1972
67.NEW FILIPINO HORSE.; Four Troops of Macabebes to be Formed with Americans as Officers, NY Times, July 17, 1900.
68.Hector Santos, ed. (June 15, 1997), "The Balangiga Massacre: Getting Even", Philippine History and Culture Series, The Philippine History Group of Los Angeles,, retrieved 2007-12-21
69.Boot 2003, p. 125
70.Secretary Root's Record:"Marked Severities" in Philippine Warfare, Wikisource (multiple mentions)
71.Secretary Root's Record:"Marked Severities" in Philippine Warfare#The Orders of Bell and Smith, Wikisource.
72.quoted in A People's History of the United States (1980), Howard Zinn, Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-014803-9
73.E. San Juan, Jr. (2005). "We Charge Genocide: A Brief History of US in the Philippines". Retrieved 2008-07-26.
74.^ Miller 1982, p. 88.
75.Miller 1982, p. 60.
76.^ Dumindin, Arnaldo, "The Last Holdouts: General Vicente Lukban falls, Feb. 18, 1902", Philippine-American War, 1899-1902, self-published,, retrieved 2010-06-01
77.Bayoneta, Lydia, Philippine-American War of 1899 : The brutal slaughter ignored in U.S. textbooks, Workers World,, retrieved 2010-06-01
78.Boot 2003, p. 204
79.Miller 1982, p. 91
80.^ "Bob Couttie"
81."THE WATER CURE DESCRIBED.; Discharged Soldier Tells Senate Committee How and Why the Torture Was Inflicted" (PDF). The New York Times. May 4, 1902. p. 13. Retrieved 2008-03-29.
82.Agoncillo 1990, pp. 227-231
83.Worcester 1914, p. 237 Ch.14
84.Escalante 2007, pp. 223,224.
85.Escalante 2007, p. 226.
86.An Act Temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes. (Philippine Bill of 1902), Corpus Juris online Philippine law library,, retrieved 2008-01-07
87.^ Act No. 926, enacted October 7, 1903, ChanRobles law library.[dead link]
88.Act No. 1120, enacted April 26, 1904.[dead link]
89.Escalante 2007, p. 218.
90.^ Escalante 2007, p. 219.
91.Andrew Gonzalez (1998), "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines" (PDF), Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (De La Salle University, via 19 (5&6): 513,, retrieved 2008-04-09
92.Thomasites: An army like no other, Government of the Philippines, October 12, 2003, archived from the original on 2008-04-29,, retrieved 2008-04-09
93.^ Ronald E. Dolan, ed. (1991), "United States Rule", Philippines: A Country Study, Washington, D.C.: GPO for the Library of Congress,, retrieved 2008-01-05

•Philip A.(2004) COLONIALISM IN DENIAL: US PROPAGANDA IN THE PHILIPPINE—AMERICAN WAR. Social Alternatives Vol. 23 No.3, Third Quarter, 2004. (Abstract at
•“Race-Making and Colonial Violence in the U. S. Empire: The Philippine-American War as Race War,” Diplomatic History, Vol. 30, No. 2 (April 2006), 169-210. (Adapted version at

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•Kalaw, Maximo Manguiat (1926), The Development of Philippine Politics, Oriental commercial,, retrieved 2008-02-07
•Karnow, Stanley (1990), In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines, Ballantine Books, ISBN 0345328167,
•Kumar, Amitava (October 29, 1999), Poetics/Politics: Radical Aesthetics for the Classroom, Palgrave, ISBN 0-312-21866-4
•Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz (1990), Philippine History and Government (Second ed.), Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., ISBN 9710618946
•Linn, Brian McAllister (2000), The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899-1902, University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0-8078-4948-0,
•May, Glenn Anthony (1991), Battle for Batangas: A Philippine Province at War, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-04850-5
•Miller, Stuart Creighton (1982), Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-02697-8, Kenton J. Clymer States “The War Miller describes is a more believable one than the one Gates pictures.”
•Paine, Albert Bigelow (1912), Mark Twain: A Biography: The Personal and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Harper & Brothers,
•Painter, Nell Irvin (May 1, 1989), Standing at Armageddon: The United States, 1877-1919, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-30588-0
•Ramsey, Robert D. III (2007), Savage Wars of Peace: Case Studies of Pacification in the Philippines, 1900-1902, Combat Studies Institute Press,, ISBN 978-0-16-078950-2.
•Shaw, Angel Velasco (2002), Vestiges of War: The Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream, 1899-1999, New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-9791-1
•Schirmer, Daniel B. (1972), Republic or Empire: American Resistance to the Philippine War, Schenkman, ISBN 0-87073-105-X
•Schirmer, Daniel B.; Shalom, =Stephen Rosskamm (1987), The Philippines Reader: A History of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship, and Resistance, South End Press, ISBN 0-89608-275-X
•Sexton, William Thaddeus (2008), Soldiers in the Sun, READ BOOKS, ISBN 9781443731232,
•Silbey, David J. (2007), A War of Frontier and Empire: The Philippine-American War, 1899-1902, ISBN 9780809096619,
•Smallman-Raynor, Matthew; Andrew D Cliff (January 1998), "The Philippines Insurrection and the 1902-4 cholera epidemic: Part I — Epidemiological diffusion processes in war", Journal of Historical Geography 24 (1): 69-89, doi:10.1006/jhge.1997.0077
•Steinberg, David Joel (Summer 1972), "An Ambiguous Legacy: Years at War in the Philippines", Pacific Affairs 45 (2)
•Wildman, E. (1901), Aguinaldo: A Narrative of Filipino Ambitions, Norwood, Massachusetts: Norwood Press
•Wolff, Leon (1960), Little Brown Brother: How the United States Purchased and Pacified the Philippine Islands at the Century's Turn, Doubleday & Company, Inc, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 61-6528
•Worcester, Dean Conant (1914), "IV. The Premeditated Insurgent Attack", The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2), Macmillan, pp. 75-89, ISBN 141917715X,, retrieved 2008-02-07
•Worcester, Dean Conant (1914), "IX, The conduct of the war", The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2), Macmillan, pp. 168-184, ISBN 141917715X,, retrieved 2008-02-07
•Worcester, Dean Conant (1914), "XIV, The Philippine Constabulary and Public Order", The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2), Macmillan, pp. 233-247, ISBN 141917715X,, retrieved 2008-02-07
•Young, Kenneth Ray (1994), The General's General: The Life and Times of Arthur Macarthur, Westview Press
•Zinn, Howard (1999), A People’s History of the United States, Harper Collins
•Zwick, Jim (1992), Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 0-8156-0268-5
•Zwick, Jim, Friends of the Filipino People Bulletin
•Zwick, Jim (1982), Militarism and Repression in the Philippines, Centre for Developing-Area Studies, McGill University, ISBN 0888190549
•Zwick, Jim (January 1, 1992), Prodigally Endowed with Sympathy for the Cause: Mark Twain's Involvement with the Anti-Imperialist League, Ephemera Society of America, ASIN B0006R8RJ8
10. Further reading
•The "Lodge Committee" (a.k.a. Philippine Investigating Committee) hearings and a great deal of documentation were published in three volumes (3000 pages) as S. Doc. 331, 57th Cong., 1st Session An abridged version of the oral testimony can be found in: American Imperialism and the Philippine Insurrection: Testimony Taken from Hearings on Affairs in the Philippine Islands before the Senate Committee on the Philippines—1902; edited by Henry F Graff; Publisher: Little, Brown; 1969. ASIN: B0006BYNI8
•Richard W. Stewart, General Editor, Ch. 16, Transition, Change, and the Road to war, 1902-1917", in "American Military History, Volume I: The United States Army and the Forging of a Nation, 1775-1917", Center of Military History, United States Army, ISBN 0-16-072362-0
•Wilcox, Marrion. Harper's History of the War. Harper, New York and London 1900, reprinted 1979. [Alternate title: Harper's History of the War in the Philippines]. Also reprinted in the Philippines by Vera-Reyes.
•Secretary Root's Record:"Marked Severities" in Philippine Warfare — Wikisource
•Linn, Brian McAllister. The Philippine War 1899-1902. University Press of Kansas, 2000. ISBN 0-7006-0990-3.
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