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Old 09-18-2019, 10:30 AM
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Arrow THE ROLE OF JOURNALISM IN THE 21st CENTURY

THE ROLE OF JOURNALISM IN THE 21st CENTURY:
By: White Eagle Vision
RE: https://www.whiteeaglevision.com/the...-21st-century/

THE ROLE OF JOURNALISM IN THE 21st CENTURY:

The role of journalism has been evolving since its inception, and with the advent of the 21st century, it has undergone a massive transformation. In this modern era of technology, journalism has penetrated even the smallest spheres of human lives. The Internet has become the treasure trove of news and information. Twitter, blogs, and citizen journalism have contributed successfully in making the whole world just like one big family. Journalism now is not the monopoly of a few institutions or individuals.

The choice, preferences, and needs of the public have been shaping journalism since ancient times. The public earlier was more or less a passive recipient of information. In 21st century journalism, the public is a community in which plays a very important role. Citizen journalism has given the typical journalism a whole new edge. Furthermore, the coverage has expanded considerably; information has become more diverse and engaging. It also assists and acts as a motivator for the professionals to become sharper and perform better. Nevertheless, the information may not be totally verified and accurate and is mostly littered with subjective views.

Functions of a Journalist and Journalism ethics and standards:

Public trust issues: In today’s world, people have almost unlimited sources of information allowing them to get a better, more accurate view of any given information and exercise better and more precise judgment. Now people are steadily serving as reporters and editors to each other.

Journalism ethics dictates the information should be unbiased, free, fair and concise. Nevertheless, many journalists remain biased and report according to their taste and preferences. Moreover, balancing competition and ethics is a significant issue. Because of this, the public has lost a good deal of trust in news agencies. Engaging people at the core of journalism can go a long way to restoring trust. They have to be independent, realize their responsibility in making people smart consumers of news.

Original journalistic responsibilities included trust, honesty, and integrity in job performance and in handling information. Journalists have been the human bridges between news stories. But getting from Point A: obtaining the information to Point B: delivering it takes professional morals, candor, and ethics. Twenty-first-century journalists have more challenges and freedom than those who chose the profession in previous generations. This is due in large part to the technological advancements that can make even the most distant strangers instant friends or nemesis.

A journalist’s first responsibility or roles of Journalists is and always has been to gain the public’s trust and commit to sharing the truth. Their facts must be verified, and they must forgo prejudices and biases while writing as objectively as they can. They must view public trust not as a conception, but with a realistic desire to connect on a human level. They should see the public as a community rather than just an audience of which their profession has a vital part.

In fact, gathering and sharing information is the easy part of the job. The hardest part comes from maintaining the journalist’s integrity during the process. 21st-century journalists need to be creative and work independently without compromising personal or professional integrity by being indifferent or hostile towards the story, subject matter or people involved.

Functions of a Journalist and Journalists need to:

*Have a Good Code of Ethics – Having a strong set of personal and professional ethics can ensure horrendous consequences don’t follow and destroy your reputation, or worse, your life.

*Have a Sense of Independence – The first obligation of the job is uncovering the truth. Not being swayed by corrupt handiwork is easier when you display independent goals toward the subject.

* Independent and Impartial reporting: The first and foremost ethic of journalism is impartiality. Journalism should be true, free, without any bias and lucid. It should not bog down under threat, subjective views, money, and competition.

*Avoid Prejudice and Politics at All Times – Covering a story about prejudice—whether racial or otherwise—is often necessary, but inserting opinions on the topic is not. Duties of a Journalists should also be above political debates. Loyalties should be toward the audience, not to specific beliefs or ideals.

*Be an Advocate for Peace – Teaching compassion, advocating peace, unity and taking a stand against global enemies of humanity goes a long way toward expanding one’s personal and professional growth.

*Promote the Golden Rule – Teaching the reactions and consequences surrounding the basic rule of thumb of treating others the way you wish to be treated is an easy way to instill peace without being preachy.

* Teach Positive Values – One of the most essential roles of journalism is to teach and nurture the decisive values of family, love, compassion, truthfulness, loyalty, social service, unity, and world peace. It should educate the younger generation about the positive effects of these values on human lives.

*Avoid Sensationalism – When personal ratings and money are on the line, it’s hard not to want a piece of the pie. But true journalism is about delivering a story, not about oneself or personal benefit.

* Speak out against Injustice and Violence – The role of journalism is to take a stand against the offenders of humanity, criminals, hate speech, violence, corruption, injustice and any aberration. It should act as a means of getting justice done at any cost and act as a future deterrent to unscrupulous people.

There are a lot of key rules to being a journalist, but it all comes down to respect. Respect your story’s subject matter and audience by way of providing gender, racial and national equality and personal freedom. Denounce degradation and work from a neutral platform. While that’s a tricky task, it will lead to an honorable and fulfilling profession that you can be proud to claim.

We are well aware it is not only the journalist who matters; the platform also plays a great role. A good journalist can have tremendous influence if they can find an uninfluenced platform from which to work. The trick is finding that platform or make the platforms unbiased.

Twenty-first-century role of journalism or duties of journalist in society is no longer just typical reporting and editing. It is a revolution, a platform for the whole world to unite against injustice and oppression and make the dream of a peaceful world—a world led by the Golden Rule—and make it a reality.
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O Almighty Lord God, who neither slumberest nor sleepest; Protect and assist, we beseech thee, all those who at home or abroad, by land, by sea, or in the air, are serving this country, that they, being armed with thy defence, may be preserved evermore in all perils; and being filled with wisdom and girded with strength, may do their duty to thy honour and glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

"IN GOD WE TRUST"
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Old 09-18-2019, 10:47 AM
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Post What Is Cultural Hegemony?

What Is Cultural Hegemony?
By: Nicki Lisa Cole Ph.D
RE: https://www.thoughtco.com/cultural-hegemony-3026121

Cultural hegemony refers to domination or rule maintained through ideological or cultural means. It is usually achieved through social institutions, which allow those in power to strongly influence the values, norms, ideas, expectations, worldview, and behavior of the rest of society.


Cultural hegemony functions by framing the worldview of the ruling class, and the social and economic structures that embody it, as just, legitimate, and designed for the benefit of all, even though these structures may only benefit the ruling class. This kind of power is distinct from rule by force, as in a military dictatorship, because it allows the ruling class to exercise authority using the "peaceful" means of ideology and culture.

Cultural Hegemony According to Antonio Gramsci

The Italian philosopher Antonio Gramsci developed the concept of cultural hegemony out of Karl Marx’s theory that the dominant ideology of society reflects the beliefs and interests of the ruling class. Gramsci argued that consent to the rule of the dominant group is achieved by the spread of ideologies—beliefs, assumptions, and values—through social institutions such as schools, churches, courts, and the media, among others. These institutions do the work of socializing people into the norms, values, and beliefs of the dominant social group. As such, the group that controls these institutions controls the rest of society.


Cultural hegemony is most strongly manifested when those ruled by the dominant group come to believe that the economic and social conditions of their society are natural and inevitable, rather than created by people with a vested interest in particular social, economic, and political orders.

Gramsci developed the concept of cultural hegemony in an effort to explain why the worker-led revolution that Marx predicted in the previous century had not come to pass. Central to Marx’s theory of capitalism was the belief that the destruction of this economic system was built into the system itself since capitalism is premised on the exploitation of the working class by the ruling class. Marx reasoned that workers could only take so much economic exploitation before they would rise up and overthrow the ruling class. However, this revolution did not happen on a mass scale.

The Cultural Power of Ideology

Gramsci realized that there was more to the dominance of capitalism than the class structure and its exploitation of workers. Marx had recognized the important role that ideology played in reproducing the economic system and the social structure that supported it, but Gramsci believed that Marx had not given enough credit to the power of ideology. In his essay “The Intellectuals,” written between 1929 and 1935, Gramsci described the power of ideology to reproduce the social structure through institutions such as religion and education. He argued that society's intellectuals, often viewed as detached observers of social life, are actually embedded in a privileged social class and enjoy great prestige. As such, they function as the “deputies” of the ruling class, teaching and encouraging people to follow the norms and rules established by the ruling class.

Gramsci elaborated on the role the education system plays in the process of achieving
rule by consent, or cultural hegemony, in his essay “On Education.”

The Political Power of Common Sense

In “The Study of Philosophy,” Gramsci discussed the role of “common sense”—dominant ideas about society and about our place in it—in producing cultural hegemony. For example, the idea of “pulling oneself up by the bootstraps,” the idea that one can succeed economically if one just tries hard enough, is a form of "common sense" that has flourished under capitalism, and that serves to justify the system. In other words, if one believes that all it takes to succeed is hard work and dedication, then it follows that the system of capitalism and the social structure that is organized around it is just and valid. It also follows that those who have succeeded economically have earned their wealth in a just and fair manner and that those who struggle economically, in turn, deserve their impoverished state. This form of "common sense" fosters the belief that success and social mobility are strictly the responsibility of the individual, and in doing so obscures the real class, racial, and gender inequalities that are built into the capitalist system.

In sum, cultural hegemony, or our tacit agreement with the way that things are, is a result of socialization, our experiences with social institutions, and our exposure to cultural narratives and imagery, all of which reflect the beliefs and values of the ruling class.
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O Almighty Lord God, who neither slumberest nor sleepest; Protect and assist, we beseech thee, all those who at home or abroad, by land, by sea, or in the air, are serving this country, that they, being armed with thy defence, may be preserved evermore in all perils; and being filled with wisdom and girded with strength, may do their duty to thy honour and glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

"IN GOD WE TRUST"
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Old 09-18-2019, 10:49 AM
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Post Sociology of Social Media

Sociology of Social Media
RE: https://www.sociologyguide.com/socio...-social-media/

Sociology of Social Media
Sociologists use the term cultural diversity to capture the cultural variety that exists among people who find themselves sharing some physical or virtual space. One rough indicator of cultural diversity within a country is the number of languages spoken by its residents. The sociological theories-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionism-help us to think about the Internet as a platform for presenting the self.

Functionalists focus on how parts of society function in expected and unexpected ways to maintain existing social order. They also pay attention to how parts disrupt the existing order in expected and unexpected ways. Of course the use of social networking sites as a platform for presenting the self to others is the part of society we are analyzing. Some expected, or manifest, functions of social networking sites are that they facilitate connections with family, friends, and other parties; allow members to share photos and videos; support discussions with like-minded people about hobbies and other interests; and help users to plan face-to-face meetings with friends. They also allow users to establish and maintain

contacts with a far greater number of people than is typically possible using non-digital means.

An unexpected, or latent, function of social networking sites is that many offer users a tool that allows them to connect with people with whom they have lost contact, including lost relatives. It is also a tool that police departments draw upon to collect incriminating evidence.

One manifest dysfunction of such websites is that there is no way to tell whether people are presenting real or fabricated self-profile. The news feature seemingly endless numbers of stories about people who post fabricated profiles, such as one involving three teens that posted embarrassing material and falsely attributed it to a disliked teacher. As one critic argues, "There is a general feeling that social networking is the wild west of identity management" (Martin 2008).

Many people create a Facebook page for the purpose of meeting like-minded friends or staying in touch, not thinking that potential employers may view postings for clues about someone's character apart from the resume and interview. A unexpected, or latent, dysfunction of social networking sites is that once something is posted for others to access, there is no way to control how it will be used.

Conflict theorists seek to identify advantaged and disadvantaged groups, document unequal access to scarce and valued resources, and describe the ways in which advantaged groups promote and protect their interests. With regard to social networking websites, conflict theorists ask, "Who ultimately controls these websites? And who benefits from this arrangement and at whose expense?" Conflict theorists maintain that the advantaged groups include those who own the social networking websites, advertisers, potential employers, and other parties interested in selling products. No matter how much users think they benefit from social networking, in the final analysis they are the disadvantaged groups, especially if they mistakenly believe that they control the information they have posted. On close analysis we see that the control lies with the website. Facebook (2008), for example, makes it clear that "all content on the Site and available through the Service, including designs, text, graphics, pictures, video, information, applications, software, music, sound and other les . . . are the proprietary property of the Company." MySpace (2008) warns that it may use "cookies and similar tools to customize the content and advertising gleaned from the Pro le Information you have provided."

Symbolic interactionists study social interaction and focus on self-awareness, symbols, and negotiated order. Symbolic interactionists ask, "How do the involved parties experience, interpret, influence, and respond to what they and others are saying and doing?" Symbolic interactionists are interested in learning how social networking platforms serve as a mirror, giving users especially teenagers the chance to be noticed by others and to receive feedback.

Symbolic interactionists studying Facebook and other social networking sites familiarize themselves with vocabulary and symbols people use to convey intent and mood with words such as block (take action to prevent a user from making contact or viewing a profile) and add (to gain a new friend). Finally, symbolic interactionists are interested in how order is dealt with presenting the self and seeking responses to that presentation.
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O Almighty Lord God, who neither slumberest nor sleepest; Protect and assist, we beseech thee, all those who at home or abroad, by land, by sea, or in the air, are serving this country, that they, being armed with thy defence, may be preserved evermore in all perils; and being filled with wisdom and girded with strength, may do their duty to thy honour and glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

"IN GOD WE TRUST"
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