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Old 11-27-2022, 08:51 AM
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Post The War of 1812

Naval Battles of The War of 1812
Re: https://www.c-span.org/video/?524419...ttles-war-1812

This animated Navy Department Training Film produced in 1955 showed naval battles of the War of 1812. Reel America is an American History TV series comprised of archival films from throughout the twentieth century.

Video link & story: https://www.c-span.org/video/?524419...ttles-war-1812

The history of The War of 1812:

The place just outside the Virginia capes and the year 18 7 an American frigate, the Chesapeake has been fired on and boarded. Four sailors are taken off the Chesapeake to the British ship leopard and impressed into English naval service Britain at war with France faced the conqueror of Europe napoleon Bonaparte English ships hovered off American ports ready to seize vessels and cargo destined for France. The United States was expanding westward.

The Louisiana purchase in 18 3 had doubled the size of the young Republic. The Mississippi was now open to its mouth down the western rivers went the pioneers, but the British hold on. The forts in the northwest territory gave them control of the lakes and of the Indians in the area naturally. The American frontiersmen wanted the British to get out there. Spokesman in Congress. The War Hawks clamored for war, but on the eastern seaboard, far removed from frontier problems, there was less enthusiasm for war. In 18 7, President Jefferson tried to avoid war by proclaiming an embargo. No foreign trade, no ships to leave our ports for overseas. This embargo was an economic catastrophe for America and was repealed in 89 during May 18 11 occurred.

Another incident off our coast, bringing us closer to war In a night encounter.

The British war little belt exchanged shots with the American frigate President War was declared the following year 1812, June 18, American strategy called for raiding hostile Seaborne commerce and and offensive to invade and conquer Canada while protecting our own coast and borders from similar enemy action. The naval instruments for coast defense were harbor gunboats, which proved of limited value, And a United States fleet of 17 naval vessels, seven frigates and 10 smaller ships, as contrasted to the British Navy of some 600 vessels, including 124 ships of the line mounting 60 or more guns and 116 frigates of 30-60 guns each. Nevertheless, at the outset of war, the vastly outnumbered

American Navy had several distinct advantages. First, the bulk of British naval strength was pinned down in European waters, blockading napoleon. Second America's frigates designed by the Master Naval architect Joshua Humphrey's were larger and heavier gunned than the British frigates. They were excellent fast sailors and third an advantage of the utmost importance. Many of the naval commanders had been rigidly schooled under commodore Prebble in the war with Tripoli.

The well remembered successes of American naval captains against British commerce during the Revolutionary War led the small United States Navy of 18 12 to challenge once again British command of the seas through commerce rating in this, the Navy was joined by hundreds of American privateers vessels licensed by the government to prey on enemy trade. During the first year of war, American squadrons made wide sweeps.

They're prime targets were convoys from the west Indies to Europe commodore Rogers with the frigates President and Congress. the frigate United States and brig august under Decatur Bainbridge with the Constitution and scoop of war Hornet all set out to strike the British merchant fleets. Deployment of these American naval squadrons diverted the British fleet in northern American waters from blockading United States ports to escorting merchant men and seeking out our commerce Raiders off New Jersey, July 17 and 18 18 12. In one of the most dramatic incidents of the war, a British squadron, including the frigates Carriere and Shannon moving south from Halifax almost captured the Constitution.

Captain Isaac Hull by skillful, catching narrowly escaped in a dead calm. With no help from the sales anchors were repeatedly carried ahead in ships, boats dropped, and the Constitution hauled up to them. Resourcefulness saved the day. Just a month later on August 19 well out in the North, Atlantic, the constitution made her most famous fight. She again cited the Guerrier. This time alone, ho had the weather gauge. He approached to pass close under Gary stern, where he could pour out a raking broadside, but the English Captain Dacres fired all his starboard guns and wearing ship brought his other side to the Constitution. He fired a broadside. Many of the Guerrier shots did not penetrate the Constitution's oak side scene made of iron. Old iron sides bakers turned away, but the Constitution came on side by side. They ran in a square set to the Guerrier lost her missing, missed. It dragged in the water like a rudder, turning her to starboard.

The American forced the British to turn. Still further crossed her bow poured in another broadside. The spread of the Guerrier caught in old ironsides, mizzen rigging down came the barriers for most, and then the main most ships wrenched apart, so the Gary L. A hulk in the trough of the sea, her gun muzzles rolling under too badly cut up to be taken as a prize. She was burned at sea. This stinging victory was a tonic to the American's ashore, cheers rang out for Captain Hull, Old Ironsides and a fighting navy. On October 18 18 12. After a spirited engagement, the wasp captured the British brig frolic.

A week later, 600 miles west of the Canary Islands, the frigate United States met the British Frigate Macedonian, Captain Stephen Decatur, by skillful seamanship and accurate gunnery, took the Macedonian and sent her into a new England part. On December 29, 1812, off Brazil Bainbridge. In the constitution encountered an enemy frigate, the Java, in company with a captured American merchant vessel Bainbridge fired a shot across the frigates bow. The java broke her colors open fire, and the battle was joined.

The Constitutions wheel was shot away. They bridge the twice wounded, continued in command, severely punished the java was a dismasted and defeated hulk and like the Guerrier was destroyed at sea Off Boston on June 1, 1813. The American Chesapeake, with a green crew unwisely sought battle with a cracked British frigate Shannon. The day of battle was the first time the Chesapeake's crew had assembled at their stations. She was unready for action. Captain Lawrence, fatally wounded, pleaded in vain. Don't give up the ship, but demoralization rapidly set in and the Chesapeake surrendered In a fiercely fought, evenly matched brig engagement. In September 1813, the American enterprise took the boxer. Meanwhile, the Essex rounded Cape Horn, the first American man of war to enter the pacific ocean under Captain David Porter. She cruised it well and destroyed the British whaling industry in the eastern pacific at Valparaiso. Although in neutral waters, Porter was cornered and illegally attacked by a superior British force. After a long, heroic and bloody fight, the Essex surrendered In 1812, it will be recalled.

The American plan envisioned the conquest of Canada. The American militia outnumbered the British ground forces in Canada, but English ships controlled the lakes by water Britain could supply her forces. She could move them rapidly and she had secure communications on the land frontier. There was also the ever present threat of Indian attack intensified by Tecumseh Indian Confederation. The American General Hull was forced out of Detroit. In August 1812 by the energetic Britisher General Brock Using his late craft brock repelled attacks by larger American land forces to contest British control of the lakes, President Madison ordered the building of American warships on these vital arteries. By 1813 Commodore Oliver Hazard. Perry had built a fleet on Lake Erie. The British commodore. Barclay had lagged behind in this construction race. At Maldon, Barkley waited for the launching of his most powerful ship, the Detroit. Here he could protect the ford in Detroit and cover British water communications for land operations against the Americans on the Mommy and Sandusky rivers. In Ohio Perry established himself at put in bay in a position to sever British communications. On September 10, 1813, Barclay came out to fight the British to Lourdes were in column.

The American's stood down on them. Each fleet had two heavy ships and one of lesser strength to form a central group. Perry flew his flag in the Lawrence 20 guns. The Detroit 19 guns was Barkley's flagship. Perry closed the distance. He was exposed to fire, which he could return only with his forward guns. Lawrence, Tran or support, the three heaviest British ships poured in, converging fire. The American Caledonia closed, but Niagara lagged behind, the Lawrence was crippled her decker shambles, every gun useless, most of her crew killed or wounded. Meanwhile the wind strengthened.

Fresh American units came up. Perry shifted his flag to the Niagara in his new flagship, Harry returned to action and broke through the enemy line with his starboard guns. He Detroit, Queen charlotte and Hunter and deport. He fired broadsides into other British vessels, smaller American vessels closed in on a disorganized enemy. The British flagship Detroit surrendered. The Battle of Lake Erie was one Perry wrote to General Harrison. We have met the enemy and they are ours. This victory severed British communications in Ohio. Their withdrawal over land was intercepted at the Thames River by American troops brought across the lake by Perry. The battle here in which Perry led a cavalry charge was another American triumph, putting all territory north and west of northern Ohio under friendly control. As pressure of the Napoleonic wars eased naval strength was released from Europe and Britain, tightly blockaded the American coast prices soared. Commerce was almost at a standstill. Coast wise, freight moved only by wagon. By 1814, British armies composed largely of veterans from European campaigns were sent to America.
The United States was to be invaded from the north and from the south, and as a diversion cities on the seaboard were to be raided in laid waste. The capital city of Washington was selected at Bladensburg on the District of Columbia line. The British marauders were met by several 1000 raw and demoralized militia. The one stout stand was by commodore barney's handful of sailors and marines, barney's position was overrun. The British entered Washington burned the navy yard, the capitol. The White House then retired. The next city scheduled for the torch was Baltimore feverish preparations were made to defend the city. The British landed and took the first line of earthworks, but the defenders held reinforced by commodore Rogers and his sailors. All night. The British fleet bombarded Fort McHenry, but the rockets red glare, the bombs bursting in air gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. Soul wrote, Francis Scott Key as he watched for the dawn's early light. The invasion from the north by 12,000 season troops was led in prison by the Governor General of Canada. Sir George. Prevost success of the invasion depended on command of Lake Champlain, since there were no suitable roads and only that waterway could carry an army's supplies.

But the United States controlled these waters commodore Thomas. McDonough had built an American fleet which was based at Plattsburgh. The British had also rushed construction of the fleet, including the powerful 37 gunship compliance crevices and his army arrived at Plattsburgh, where no sizable American land forces opposed him. Early in the morning of September 11 18 14, the British squadron sailed to engage McDonough. The American fleet waited in the bay under Cumberland Head in careful formation ready for action. McDonough had chosen his position well.

The British fleet had to approach the American column with their bows presented and open to the dreaded raking fire British commodore Donnie had four strong ships compliance linnet finch and chub plus gunboats. The Conf I InsP was scarcely ready for action. Ship rights had just left her. The crew had just reported aboard another example of an unready vessel. Donny knew that the two strongest American vessels were on the windward or northern end of the column and decided to concentrate three ships against them. The limit and the chub were to engage the Eagle, while the compliance was to anchor a thwart the bow of the American flagship, Saratoga, Finch and gunboats were to attack the American rear. The Ticonderoga Prebble and the galleys, but Fortune was with McDonagh. The wind failed, the confines forced to anchor. She was fired on by the entire American column. In return, the compliance fired her first broadside, and the Saratoga lost 1/5 of her crew aboard the confinements. Donny was killed. The Eagle was attacked as planned by the limit, but not by the chub, which became unmanageable, and surrendered.

The finch grounded so the American rear was attacked only by gunboats. The compliance and limit fought against the American Saratoga and Eagle. After an hour and a half, both flagships were shattered at the critical moment. McDonough, by use of a spring line, pivoted his ship to bring fresh batteries to bear. The issue was decided here.

The confinements tried the same, but was slowed by battle damage, the crew panicked, The confined struck her colors, followed 15 minutes later by the limit commodore McDonough with leadership, bravery and skillful disposition of his ships had won a great victory. Governor protests, army retreated to Canada since naval control of the lake remained in American hands. In 1814, weary of a crossly stalemated war. The British initiated peace negotiations on Christmas Eve. The Treaty of Ghent was signed, but news of the peace did not reach the British force at sea poised for the southern invasion. Commodore Daniel Patterson predicted correctly that the British point of attack would be New Orleans.

His small naval squadron delayed the enemy landing several days, gaining invaluable preparation time for the Americans when the battle was joined in January 1815, direct naval gunfire support assisted General Andrew Jackson in defeating a British veteran army of some 5000 troops. New Orleans was the last land action of the war. By the terms of the treaty, the British agreed to evacuate the northwest territory. They relinquish their claims for part of Maine and exclusive control of the great Lakes.

The decisive American naval victories by Perry on Lake Erie, and Mc Donaghy on Lake Champlain left Britain with a poor case. England never resumed impress mint of American The war of 1812 proved once more the necessity for a strong Navy maintained in a state of constant readiness lacking adequate naval strength. We could not lift the strangling blockade invasion had been stopped on Lake Champlain and at new Orleans, but it was not stopped in the Chesapeake bay, which was devoid of American naval strength, Washington had been burned. The Chesapeake's loss to the Shannon emphasized the disastrous results of lack of training and discipline, but America could take pride in her fighting ships and men.

The few frigates and smaller vessels had more than held their own, all forerunners of our great modern fighting ships, Men and ships of 1812 Fighting defenders of our Great Free Republic
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Personal note: The War of 1812 was more or less a battle at sea and here is where the British Navy suffered its worst disaster ever at sea during this time period. It goes to say that we American's stood our ground (even at sea) to win our independence from British Rule.
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I listened to it first and then read it as a good refresher to what was posted.
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Boats

O Almighty Lord God, who neither slumberest nor sleepest; Protect and assist, we beseech thee, all those who at home or abroad, by land, by sea, or in the air, are serving this country, that they, being armed with thy defence, may be preserved evermore in all perils; and being filled with wisdom and girded with strength, may do their duty to thy honour and glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

"IN GOD WE TRUST"
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