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Peace is not an absence of war, it is a virtue, a state of mind, a disposition for benevolence, confidence, justice

-- Baruch Spinoza

World War I The steamer appeared to be close to us and looked colossal. I saw the captain walking on his bridge, a small whistle in his mouth. I saw the crew cleaning the deck forward, and I saw, with surprise and a slight shudder, long rows of wooden partitions right along all decks, from which gleamed the shining black and brown backs of horses.

Oh heavens, horses! What a pity, those lovely beasts!

But it cannot be helped, I went on thinking. War is war, and every horse the fewer on the Western front is a reduction of England's fighting power. I must acknowledge, however, that the thought of what must come was a most unpleasant one, and I will describe what happened as briefly as possible.

"Stand by for firing a torpedo!" I called down to the control room.

"FIRE!"

A slight tremor went through the boat - the torpedo had gone.

The death-bringing shot was a true one, and the torpedo ran towards the doomed ship at high speed. I could follow its course exactly by the light streak of bubbles which was left in its wake.

I saw that the bubble-track of the torpedo had been discovered on the bridge of the steamer, as frightened arms pointed towards the water and the captain put his hands in front of his eyes and waited resignedly. Then a frightful explosion followed, and we were all thrown against one another by the concussion, and then, like Vulcan, huge and majestic, a column of water two hundred metres high and fifty metres broad, terrible in its beauty and power, shot up to the heavens.

"Hit abaft the second funnel," I shouted down to the control room.

All her decks were visible to me. From all the hatchways a storming, despairing mass of men were fighting their way on deck, grimy stokers, officers, soldiers, groom, cooks. They all rushed, ran, screamed for boats, tore and thrust one another from the ladders leading down to them, fought for the lifebelts and jostled one another on the sloping deck. All amongst them, rearing, slipping horses are wedged. The starboard boats could not be lowered on account of the list; everyone therefore ran across to the port boats, which in the hurry and panic, had been lowered with great stupidity either half full or overcrowded. The men left behind were wringing their hands in despair and running to and fro along the decks; finally they threw themselves into the water so as to swim to the boats.

Then - a second explosion, followed by the escape of white hissing steam from all hatchways and scuttles. The white steam drove the horses mad. I saw a beautiful long-tailed dapple-grey horse take a mighty leap over the berthing rails and land into a fully laden boat. At that point I could not bear the sight any longer, and I lowered the periscope and dived deep.

Note: by Adolf K.G.E. von Spiegel


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This Day in History
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1915: A German attack at Souchez is repulsed.

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1918: A large Allied counter attack on the 27-mile front between Fontenoy and Belleau begins. The French reach Monte de Paris. South of Ourcq, French and Americans secure line Marizy-Hautvesnes-Belleau. South of Marne the Germans reach St. Agneau. East of Reims the French retake Prunay and then defeat the Prussian Guard east of Prosnes.

1935: Ethiopian King Haile Selassie urges his countrymen to fight to the last man against the invading Italian army.

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