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This Day in History
1775: The Continental Congress authorizes construction of two warships, thus instituting an American naval force.

1776: Benedict Arnold is defeated at Lake Champlain.

1812: At the Battle of Queenston Heights, a Canadian and British army defeats the American who have tried to invade Canada.

1917: The British drive the Turks from Seraijik.

1918: The British re-occupy Neuve Eglise and repel further attack.

1942: In the first of four attacks, two Japanese battleships sail down the slot and shell Henderson field on Guadalcanal, in an unsuccessful effort to destroy the American Cactus Air Force.

1943: The government of Italy declares war on its former Axis partner Germany and joins the battle on the side of the Allies.

1951: Hill 851, the last peak comprising Heartbreak Ridge, was secured by the 23rd Regimental Combat Team of the 2nd Infantry Division after a fierce assault of bayonets, grenades and flame-throwers. Total allied casualties were over 3,700, more than 1,800 suffered by the 23rd Infantry RCT alone. Total enemy casualties were estimated 25,000. A total of 6,060 prisoners were taken.

1966: Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara declares at a news conference in Saigon that he found that military operations have "progressed very satisfactorily since 1965."

1970: In a report prepared at the request of President Nixon, counterinsurgency expert Sir Robert Thompson explains that smashing the Viet Cong is a prerequisite for solving the political troubles of South Vietnam.