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We cannot enter into alliances until we are acquainted with the designs of our neighbors.-- Sun Tzu
APPLE LADY - hard cider.
BARK JUICE - a slang term for liquor or strong adult beverage.
BULLY - a slang term which, when used as an expletive (Bully!), was an expression of approbation or strong encouragement; a hurrah of sorts.
BUST HEAD - a slang term for home-brewed or camp-brewed beer or other alcoholic beverages.
CABBAGING - a slang term for stealing.
CHIN MUSIC - slang term for conversation.
CLINK, THE - a slang term for jail or prison, the term's origin came from the name of a prison of the same name which was on Clink Street in the Southwark area of London.
COOSH - a slang term used to describe hard tack or hard crackers (military- issue food made of flour and salt and water, baked in squares much like modern-day saltine crackers, and carried dry) when the hard tack was soaked in water and fried in bacon grease to render it soft and reasonably edible.
DIGGINGS - a slang term for the soldiers' camp.
DONE TO A TURN - a slang term meaning that something had been completed or accomplished satisfactorily, the term came from the kitchen. Meat was roasted until cooked on an upright spit which had to be turned by hand, and when it was ready to be removed from the spit, the meat was said to be done to a turn, requiring no more turning or cooking.
DURANCE VILE - prison foul.
FANCY GIRL - a euphemistic term for a prostitute.
FAST TRICK - a slang term for a woman reputed to be morally loose.
FIRE AND FALL BACK - a slang term meaning "to vomit."
FORLORN HOPE - a slang term for a party selected to begin an attack.
FRESH FISH - a slang term for a new recruit.
GAL-BOY - a slang term for an effeminate, or homosexual, man.
GIVE THE COLD SHOULDER - to snub another person. It came from times when a guests would overstay their welcome as house guests. To communicate that to their now-unwelcome guests, the host would not feed their guests a good, hot meal. Instead, they would serve their guests the least appetizing part of the animal - the shoulder - and serve it cold; hence, the "cold shoulder."
GOING DOWN THE LINE - a slang term meaning to pay a visit to a brothel.
GOOBER PEAS - peanuts.
GREY BACK - a slang term used among the Federal troops to denote either a Confederate soldier or a louse.
HARD CASE - a slang term for someone who is rough or tough.
HOOF IT - a slang term meaning "to march", or to be herded in the manner of cattle.
HORIZONTAL REFRESHMENTS - a slang term meaning to have sexual relations; normally used in the context of sexual relations with a prostitute.
HORNETS - a slang term for bullets, particularly with reference to bullets fired, given the name because of the angry, buzzing sound they make as they speed past or around the person at whom they are fired.
HORSE COLLAR - slang term for a soldier's blanket roll.
HOW COME YOU SO - a slang term for home-brewed or camp-brewed beer or other alcoholic beverages.
HUNKEY DOREY - a slang term meaning "great" or "terrific".
IRISH SHANTEE - an outhouse.
JAYHAWKED - obtained without the knowledge or permission of the rightful owner.
JONAH - a slang term for a person who is perceived to be a jinx, or who brings bad luck with him.
MIND YOUR BEESWAX - a slang term that directs one to pay attention to his or her own affairs, it came from a time when smallpox pock marks were a common disfigurement. Ladies found that they could fill in the pock marks with beeswax. However, a lady who filled in her pock marks with beeswax would find that her beeswax would melt if she stayed too close to the fire (the reason that fire screens were made) or her beeswax would melt when the weather was too hot and she was in the sun too long. Since makeup was frowned upon in the Victorian era, and since no real lady would call attention to another lady to go fix that which she was not supposed to be wearing in the first place, the admonition to "mind your own beeswax" came into general use.
NOB - a person who is superior, or superior-acting. The term is believed to derive from the term used to describe the jack of the same suit as the starter in cribbage that scores one point for the holder.
NOKUM STIFF - a slang term for liquor or strong adult beverage.
OH-BE-JOYFUL - a slang term for home-brewed or camp-brewed beer or other alcoholic beverages.
OIL OF GLADNESS - a slang term for home-brewed or camp brewed beer or other alcoholic beverages.
OLD SCRATCH - a slang term for the devil.
OPEN THE BALL - a slang term meaning to begin a battle.
PARLEY - a slang term for a conference; the word deriving from the French "parler", meaning "to speak."
PARLOR SOLDIER - a derisive slang term intended to suggest that the soldier to whom the term referred was no true soldier, but an imitation, dressed more for show than for practical use. There was also the suggestion that such a one was also effeminate.
POSSUM - a slang term for a buddy.
QUICK STEP - a slang term meaning that one has diarrhea.
RAG OUT - a slang term meaning to dress well.
RIDING A DUTCH GAL - a slang term, meaning to consort with a prostitute.
SAWBONES - a slang term for a surgeon. The expression originated with the practice of amputation in which the surgeon necessarily had to saw through one or more bones of a patient.
SECESH - a Southern sympathizer.
SHEBANG - a slang term for a shelter tent. Also known as a PUP TENT.
SHEET IRON CRACKER - a slang term for HARD TACK.
SHIN PLASTERS - a slang term for paper money.
SKEDADDLE - a military slang term of the Civil War, it probably originally described or suggested a fanciful military formation. It quickly came to mean to run off or run away, or to leave in a hurry.
SLEEP TIGHT - a slang term meaning to "sleep well" that came as a reference to the bed itself. Rope beds were the predecessors of today's mattress and foundations. Wooden frames held ropes strung from side to side, end to end, in a continuous run of rope that served as the foundation. Straw or feather mattresses were laid on this rope network. With time and certainly with use, the ropes would loosen, and the bed would become increasingly uncomfortable; the bed then required the attention of a person with a "bed key" or "rope key" that was used to put tension back into the ropes - to tighten them.
SOLDIER'S DISEASE - opium addiction was not generally known or understood until the end of the War. Due to its prevalence among soldiers of the period who had been wounded, given opium to relieve the pain, and subsequently become addicted to opium, the sobriquet "soldier's disease" was attached to either opium addiction or the withdrawal symptoms of an opium addict.
SON OF A GUN - an expletive that has a muddled history whose direct application (that of one being a bastard, arguably) is indeterminate. As the story of its origin is told, we are given to understand that after sailors had crossed the Atlantic to the West Indies, they would take the native women on board the ship and have their way with them in between the cannons. Some of the women the sailors left behind would have boys, who were called sons between the guns. Others hold that in the early days of the British Navy, women were allowed to join up in what were ostensibly non-combative roles. The voyages long and feelings of loneliness growing resulted in babies being born while the mothers were still at sea in their capacities as sailors. If the woman concerned would not name the father, the Captain would log the birth as being the son of a gun - the gun deck(s) being the only place where a reasonable degree of privacy could be had for such an event. Still others hold that the term "son of a gun" actually referred to irresponsible sailors, a version that could either pre-date or post-date the origins noted above. They maintain that a soldier or common seaman was called a "gun" (for much the same reason that a woman used to be called a "skirt", or a beatnik was a ""beard" or an "eared beard" - association with a distinctive characteristic; soldiers carry guns and seamen manned guns on shipboard). Consequently, a "son of a gun" was understood to be the son of a sailor. Yet another version says that desertion from a ship was so common when ships would put into their home port that the seamen would not typically be allowed shore leave. Their wives and girlfriends, though, were allowed to board on the gun decks with their mates or lovers. On the rare occasion, women would begin labor while visiting her husband on shipboard. For those who had a difficult labor, it's said, the cannons on either side of her were fired as an "aid" in the process. Male children born under these circumstances were referred to as "sons of a Gun."
SOW BELLY - a slang term for bacon.
TAR WATER - a slang term for liquor or strong adult beverage.
TEETH DULLER - a slang term for HARD TACK.
TO SEE THE ELEPHANT - an expression which dates to the Mexican-American War period, meaning to not receive what you were hoping to get; to be short- changed or cheated; a disappointment. Unfortunately, many today in re- enacting have come to assume wrongly that it means to see the excitement or to view a novelty, often applied to men going off to the War. It became a popular term during the California gold rush when many gold prospectors who had come in search of easily gained wealth found that almost all of them had to work extremely hard for little return. It is believed that the term originated from bogus circuses which came into being during the 1840's.
TOAD STICKER - a slang expression for a knife, bayonet, or sword.
TRAPS - a slang term for a soldier's belongings or equipment.
UP THE SPOUT - a slang term, "up the spout" was sometimes used to indicate that a round was ready to be fired from any weapon; typically a piece or a battery, when ready to fire, is considered "in battery," and when all cannons were ready to fire, they were said to be "up the spout". "Spout" was a lift use long ago in pawnbrokers' shops up which the articles pawned were taken for storage. This evolved so that "spout" was slang for a pawnshop; the term dates at least to 1834. "To put (or shove) up the spout" was to pawn; "up the spout" meant to was pawn or pledge; and that changed until "up the spout" meant something or someone who was in a bad way, in a hopeless condition, or out of the question. The latter definition dates at least back to 1829. "Up the spout" was frequently applied to the Confederacy toward the end of the war, as well as to individuals. In the early twentieth century the phrase came to mean "to make pregnant, especially out of wedlock."
UPPITY - a slang term for someone who is conceited or believes himself to be above his true "station in life."
VANGUARD - in the front row of advancing troops.
WORM CASTLE - a slang term for HARD TACK.
ZU-ZU - a slang term for a Zouave.
Civil War Military Terms
ABATIS - trees felled and laid with their branches sharpened and interwoven so as to present a thick row of pointed stakes towards the enemy. They were generally used in front of field works.
AIGUILLETTE - the worsted red cord and tassel worn with the U.S. Army's dress light artillery shako.
APRON - in gunnery, a piece of leather covering the vent of a cannon.
ARMSTRONG GUN - an English-made breech-loading cannon whose projectile had cast lead bands wound about it; these could kill the gun crew when they flew off.
BANQUETTE - a small elevation of earth three or four feet wide and four feet nine inches below the crest of the parapet to enable the shortest man to fire over it easily.
BATTLE FLAG - a color displaying battle honors carried in battle; in the Confederate Army, a regimental flag that was less formal than the color. On July 23, 1862 battle honors were allowed to be inscribed on Confederate battle flags.
BEARDSLEE TELEGRAPH - a telegraph used in the U.S. Army that used a dial for pointing to the appropriate letter rather than a key which required knowledge of Morse code, a lighter cable and a hand-cranked magneto instead of a battery.
BERM - a narrow space between the ditch and parapet to keep the parapet from falling into the ditch.
BOOTEE - an ankle-high, laced shoe or boot, termed the "Jefferson Boot" in U.S. Army regulations.
BRAID - woven colored band, often of worsted cotton or wool and sometimes having metallic thread, used to trim uniforms.
BROGANS - ankle-high bootees laced in front.
BREVET RANK - temporary, often honorary, commissions enabling the owner to wear the uniform and collect the pay of that rank while yet being listed in the official lists with a lower rank.
BUCK AND BALL - the 0.69 inch caliber cartridge containing one 0.69 inch caliber ball and three buckshot.
BUFF LEATHER - a heavy but flexible leather of a natural buff color and dyed on one side. It was used for belts in the Union Army.
BULLSEYE CANTEEN - the M1858 US canteen as made between 1862 and 1865 with nine concentric rings pressed into each side for added strength.
BUMMERS - foragers with the Army of Tennessee in Sherman's campaign through Georgia.
BUMMER'S CAP - a modern term for the U.S. Army's regulation forage (fatigue) cap.
BURNSIDE CAP - a regular U.S. Army officer's dress felt hat made with a lower crown.
BUTTERNUT - a dye used in the South for uniform cloth during the early years of the war; it was made from the oily nut of the white walnut mixed with copperas.
CADET GRAY - a gray tending towards blue rather than brown. The regulation Confederate coat color.
CALIFORNIA BRIGADE - in the Army of the Potomac, the 1st California Volunteer Infantry (71st Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry), 2nd California Volunteer Infantry (72nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry), 3rd California Volunteer Infantry (69th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry), and 5th California Volunteer Infantry (106th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry) were recruited in Philadelphia under command of Edward D. Baker, but reverted to their Pennsylvania designations after Baker's death at Ball's Bluff and became the Philadelphia Brigade.
CALIFORNIA 100 - Company A. 2nd Massachusetts Volunteer Cavalry was recruited in California, traveled East and mustered in January 3, 1863. Its members wore the brass roman letters "CAL 100" or "CALIFORNIA 100" on the top of their forage caps.
CAMOUFLET - an explosive device placed in front of works that would explode inward in shafts tunneled under the works.
CAMP COLORS - flags, 18 inches square, used to mark the color line, points of wheeling, etc.; they were also carried by the markers in evolutions. In the Union Army they were white for infantry and red for artillery, with the regimental number on them, mounted on eight-foot poles.
CAPONNIERE - in fortifications, a passage from one part of the work to another.
CASCABEL - that part of a cannon behind the base ring made up of the knob, the neck, the fillet and the base of the breech.
CHASE - the length of a gun from the trunnions to the muzzle.
CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE - logs, some 12 feet long and ten inches thick, pierced at 12-inch intervals throughout their length, by holes at right angles. Sharpened stakes about seven feet long, were thrust through the holes. They were used to present an obstacle to cavalry in front of defensive works.
CHEEK - the pieces of timber that form the sides of gun carriages and upon which the trunions rest.
COLOR - the flag carried by a dismounted unit.
COLUMBIAD - a siege gun differing from most guns in that it had no chamber, the bore being of equal distance throughout, although it was much thicker at the breech than the bore.
CORCORAN LEGION - a brigade in the Army of the Potomac's II Corps formed of the 155th, 164th, 170th and 184th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiments.
CROWS-FOOT - a trefoil created by stripes of embroidery or lace at the end of a buttonhole.
DAHLGREN - similar to the columbiad, it was a standard U.S. Navy artillery piece.
DUCK - a heavy canvas cloth used for tents.
EPAULEMENT - an elevation thrown up to cover troops from enemy fire, usually made of gabions filled with earth or sandbags.
EPAULETTE - a shoulder decoration consisting of a strap that buttoned near the collar, with a crescent at the shoulder from which was hung a fringe.
EPROUVETTE - a small mortar used to test the projectile force of gunpowder.
EXCELSIOR BRIGADE - in the Army of the Potomac, the 70th, 71st, 72nd, 73rd, and 74th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiments, joined in December 1862 by the 120th New York Volunteer Infantry and in March 1864 by the 11th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and 84th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry.
EXCELSIOR HAT - see Whipple hat.
FACING - a distinctive colored collar and cuffs.
FASCINES - long bundles of thin saplings used mostly for the sides of trenches.
FEZ - a brimless oriental head-dress used by Zouaves.
FIREMAN'S SHIRT - a shirt made with a buttoned plastron in front, often bearing an engine company's number. These were often worn in units such as the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry (New York Fire Zouaves).
FLYING TELEGRAPH TRAIN - a mobile communications post consisting of two wagons equipped with two Beardslee telegraphs, two hand-cranked magnetos, five miles of wire (the maximum effective range), 150 15-foot poles, 50 18-foot poles and five wire hand reels.
FORAGE CAP - the floppy version of the 1851 shako, similar to the French kepi, worn by troops for fatigue.
FOUGASSE - a charge of gunpowder dug into a pit which was exploded when an enemy passed over it.
FROG - the attachment of a scabbard to a belt, and the worsted or silk button on a cloak or coat.
GABION - cylindrical basket made without top or bottom, some three feet high and two feet in diameter, weighing 50-60 pounds, used in siege works.
GAITERS - lower leg coverings made of cotton or leather.
GARRISON FLAG - the national color, 36 feet in fly and 20 feet in hoist.
GLACIS - a parapet of the covered way in fortifications.
GREEK FIRE - an incendiary composition used in projectiles and bombs on occasions such as the Confederate attempt to burn New York with bombs, and the Union attempt to burn Charleston with artillery projectiles.
GUIDON - small silk standard for mounted troops.
GUM BLANKET - a waterproofed, often by rubberizing, canvas blanket or poncho. The white underside was often inscribed with gaming table markings by troops in the field.
GUTTA-PERCHA - a hardened rubber used in talmas and often incorrectly referred to when discussing buttons and hard image cases which were actually made of a plastic substance.
HARDEE HAT - modern term for the U.S. Army dress felt hat.
HAVELOCK - a cotton or linen covering for the forage cap with a flap that covered the neck to protect against heat, widely used in 1861 but quickly abandoned as useless.
HAVERSACK - the cloth bag worn on a strap from the right shoulder to the left hip in which rations, personal items and, at times, spare ammunition was carried. Union haversacks were waterproofed; Confederate haversacks were made of plain cotton.
HOUSEWIFE - a sewing kit containing needles and thread, carried by most soldiers. ...can be also referred to as a hussy.
IRISH BRIGADE - in the Army of the Potomac, the 63rd, 69th, and 88th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiments, joined in the spring of 1862 by the 29th New York Volunteer Infantry which was replaced by the 28th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry in October 1862. Its member wore a green hat band with the regimental number in the center. A second Irish Brigade, made up of the old regiments plus the 7th New York Volunteer Heavy Artillery was formed in November 1864.
IRON BRIGADE - in the Army of the Potomac, the 2nd, 6th, and 7th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiments and the 19th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, joined by the 24th Michigan Volunteer Infantry in late 1862. Its members wore a dress frock-coat and hat with white-gaiters, even in action. Battery B, 4th U.S. Light Artillery was attached to this unit. Suffered the highest causalities of any brigade, Union or Confederate, during the war, 75-80%.
JEANS - a twilled cotton cloth. Actually a "jean" can be any material. The definition depends on the weave (always a 2/1 twill), not the material. Civil War period jean was most commonly wool on cotton a cotton warp. "Jeans" meant clothing from "jean".
JEFF DAVIS HAT - see Hardee Hat
KEPI - the French army cap, a low forage cap.
KERSEY - a heavy wool cloth, often ribbed, used for outer garments and blankets, mostly for enlisted men.
KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE - a secret pro-Southern society in the North which performed subversive activities.
LACE - woven silk or worsted, usually made of branch-of-service colors, used to decorate uniforms.
LAUREL BRIGADE - in the Eastern theater, the 7th, 11th, and 12th Virginia Volunteer Cavalry Regiments and the 35th Virginia Volunteer Cavalry Battalion. In February 1864 its members were ordered to wear laurel leaves on their hats.
LIGHTING BRIGADE - in the Army of the Tennessee (Union), the 17th, 72nd, and 75th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiments, the 98th Illinois Volunteer Infantry and the 18th Indiana Volunteer Light Artillery, all mounted although infantry. The 123rd Illinois Volunteer Infantry soon replaced the 75th Indiana Volunteer Infantry and saw most service with the Brigade, which also was reinforced by the 92nd Illinois Volunteer Infantry during the Chickamauga campaign. Unit enlisted men wore a cavalry jacket with the lace removed, mostly a black slouch hat, and carried repeating rifles.
LUNETTE - a small field work.
McCLELLAN CAP - a low soft, true copy of the French kepi preferred by Union officers to the issue forage cap.
MINNIE BALL - the soft lead conical bullet with a hollow base used in rifle-muskets and designed by the French army's Captain Minnie.
NEW JERSEY BRIGADE - in the Army of the Potomac, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry Regiments joined by the 10th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry in October 1861, the 15th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry in August 1862, the 40th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry in February 1865, and for a short time, by the 1st Delaware Volunteer Cavalry.
NITRE - a compound of nitric acid and potash used in the manufacture of gunpowder.
ORPHAN BRIGADE - in the Army of Tennessee (Confederate). The units usually listed as members of the Orphan Brigade were the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 9th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry Regiments and Cobb's Battery. The 3rd Kentucky Volunteer Infantry was in the Brigade for less than a year, as was Byrnes's Battery. The 5th/9th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry (not to be confused with the 5th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry) was in the Brigade throughout the war.
OSNABURG - a coarse linen or cotton used mostly for linings and shirts.
PALISADE - a fence of strong stakes.
PANDA - a mixture of crumbled hardtack and water or whiskey.
PHILADELPHIA BRIGADE - in the Army of the Potomac, the 69th, 71st, 72nd, and 106th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiments. At first the 72nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry wore a blue, trimmed with red, zouave uniform jacket with a light-blue kepi trimmed with red, and sky-blue trousers with red cords down each leg and white gaiters; the 69th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry wore the same uniform trimmed in green. After 1862 both were worn for dress only.
PLASTRON - a piece of cloth, usually shield-shaped, worn on the front of a coat or shirt, often of a facing color.
PLUME - a feather, horsehair, or worsted, standing decoration worn from the top and front of a hat or cap, sometimes called a pompom.
POLKA - a form of jacket skirt slit on both sides and around descending some six inches below the waist-line, usually cut with a slight flare.
PONCHO - a blanket or rubberized blanket made with a slit in the middle so as to be worn as a cape.
PROLONGE - a stout rope with a hook at one end and a toggle at the other, with two intermediate rings into which the hook and toggle are fastened to shorten the distance between a limber and a cannon carriage, sometimes used to connect the lunette of a carriage with a limber when the piece was fired.
ROUNDABOUT - a waist-length jacket.
SENNIT HAT - a broad-brimmed hat usually made of woven straw, which could be waterproofed black when worn by seamen in foul weather.
SHAKO - a tall stiff cap, usually worn with a pompom or plume, a visor and a cap badge on the front.
SHELL JACKET - a waist-length jacket for mounted troops.
SHODDY - old woolen rags passed through a machine that reduced them to wool, then saturated with oil or milk, mixed with new wool, and then run into large shallow pans, partially dried, and then pressed between cylinders to make new cloth. The result looked good but lasted only a short time in the field. Many 1861 Union uniforms were made of shoddy.
SHOULDER-STRAPS - rectangular stripes edged in gold embroidery worn on each shoulder over a ground of a facing color with officers rank badges embroidered inside.
SHOULDER-TAB - a piece of cloth sewn into the shoulder seam and buttoning near the collar. Sometimes called epaulette.
SICILIAN CAP - a cap without a visor and with a bag ending with a tassel, worn by many Southern volunteers in 1861.
SOLDIER'S HEART - a reference, possibly medical, to a condition not uncommon among troops that have seen the horrors of combat. It has gone by different names in different conflicts. In WWI, it was called "shell shock"; in WWII and Korea it went by the term "battle fatigue"; in Vietnam it was known as "PTSD" - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. PTSD has been identified by written documentation to have existed for at least the last 4,000 years -back to the time of the armies of ancient Egypt's 11th Dynasty Pharaoh Mentuhotep I (c. 2060-2010 B.C.).
STANDARD - the flag carried by a mounted command.
STOCK - a tight-fitting strap worn around an enlisted man's neck, usually of leather, which was regulation but rarely worn during the war.
STONEWALL BRIGADE - in the Army of Northern Virginia, the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27th and 33rd Virginia Volunteer Infantry regiments.
SUTLER - a civilian retailer attached to a specific regiment, who sold goods such as food, tobacco, newspapers, magazines, and clothing. Some issued their own chits or paper money, while all could keep accounts to be deducted from a soldiers pay. By regulations, prices were to be reasonable and hours were limited to before nine at night and Sundays except during religious services. Sutlers were more common in Union armies than among Confederate ones.
TEXAS BRIGADE - in the Army of Northern Virginia, the 1st, 4th, and 5th Texas Volunteer Infantry Regiments, at first with the 18th Georgia Volunteer Infantry (nicknamed 3rd Texas Volunteer Infantry), then with 3rd Arkansas Volunteer Infantry. Rielly's North Carolina Battery served with the Brigade from time to time.
TRAVERSE - parapet of earth raised to cover troops from enfilading fire.
UNIFORM JACKET - a short jacket cut long in the front and back to fit under a waist-belt.
VEDETTE - sentry on horse-back.
VERMONT BRIGADE - in the Army of the Potomac, the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th Vermont Volunteer Infantry Regiments, joined in May 1864 by the 1st Vermont Volunteer Heavy Artillery and the 2nd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry from October 1862 to June 1863.
VOLLEY - the simultaneous discharge of a number of firearms.
WELLINGTONS - ankle-high boots made without laces in front.
WHIPPLE HAT - known as the "Excelsior hat" by Confederates, it was made from light-blue felt with a brim running two-thirds around the hat's perimeter with a leather visor in front. Made by the Seamless Clothing Mfg. Co. in 1861, it was patented by J.F. Whipple of New York on 16 July 1861 and was worn by troops from New York and New Hampshire as well as by the U.S. Sharpshooters.
WHITWORTH GUN - an English-made breech-loading cannon that saw Confederate service. Whitworth rifles, using the same boring procedures, were also issued to sharpshooters.
ZIGZAG - defiladed trenches run out from parallels of attack so as to form a covered rad by which the attackers could approach the enemy's lines.
1861: Robert E. Lee is named commander of Virginia forces.
1863: Colonel Benjamin Griersons troops bring destruction to central Mississippi on a two-week raid along the entire length of the state.
1898: In the first action of the Spanish-American War, the USS Nashville, takes on a Spanish ship.
1915: German forces shock Allied soldiers along the western front by firing more than 150 tons of lethal chlorine gas against two French colonial divisions at Ypres, Belgium.
1944: Allied forces land in the Hollandia area of New Guinea.
1945: Hitler admits to all in his underground bunker that the war is lost and that suicide is his only recourse.
1951: The Chinese launched their spring offensive with a heavy artillery barrage northeast of Yonchon. The Battle of the Imjin River began.
1995: In Africa, Rwandan troops kill thousands of Hutu refugees in Kibeho.